24. prosinca 1939

24. prosinca 1939


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24. prosinca 1939

Prosinca 1939. godine

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> Siječnja

Zimski rat

Finske olujne trupe prešle sovjetsku granicu u blizini Lieksa nakon što su razorile sovjetske trupe u okruzima Tolvajarvi i Aglajarvi



24. prosinca 1939. - Povijest

1. Kongres narodnih zastupnika SSSR-a priznaje zaključke komisije koja je dala političku i pravnu ocjenu sovjetsko-njemačkog Ugovora o nenapadanju iz 1939. godine.

2. Kongres narodnih zastupnika SSSR-a slaže se s mišljenjem komisije da je Ugovor o nenapadanju s Njemačkom potpisan u kritičnoj međunarodnoj situaciji i u uvjetima sve veće opasnosti od fašističke agresije u Europi i prijetnje Japanaca militarizma u Aziji i u kojem je jedan od ciljeva Ugovora bio zakloniti SSSR od opasnosti predstojećeg rata. Na kraju ovaj cilj nije postignut, dok su pogrešni izračuni u pogledu obveza Njemačke prema SSSR -u pogoršali posljedice izdajničke nacističke agresije. Naša se zemlja u to vrijeme nalazila pred teškim izborima.

Ugovorne obveze stupile su na snagu odmah nakon potpisivanja, no sam Ugovor trebao je odobriti Vrhovno vijeće SSSR -a. Odluka o rati fikakaciji donesena je 31. kolovoza u Moskvi, a rati fication pisma razmijenjena su 24. rujna 1939. godine.

3. Stajalište Kongresa je da sadržaj ovog Pakta nije značajno odstupao od standarda međunarodnog prava koji su korišteni u takvim propisima. Međutim, nije objavljeno da je istodobno s sklapanjem i ratifikacijom Ugovora potpisan tajni dodatni protokol koji je odredio sfere interesa potpisnika od Baltičkog mora do Crnog mora i od Finske do Besarabije.

Izvornik protokola nije pronađen ni u sovjetskim ni u stranim arhivima. Međutim, grafološko, fototehničko i leksičko proučavanje kopija, karata i drugih dokumenata te usklađenost kasnijih događaja s protokolom dokazuju da je protokol činjenično potpisan i da je postojao.

4. Kongres narodnih zastupnika SSSR-a ovim potvrđuje da je Ugovor o nenapadanju od 23. kolovoza 1939., kao i Ugovor o prijateljstvu i granici potpisan između SSSR-a i Njemačke 28. rujna 1939. postao, kao i sovjetsko-njemački sporazumi , nevažeći prema standardima međunarodnog prava u trenutku kada je Njemačka napala Sovjetski Savez, tj. 22. lipnja 1941. godine.

5. Kongres navodi da su i po svojoj pripremnoj metodi i sadržaju Protokol od 23. kolovoza 1939. i drugi tajni protokoli koji su potpisani s Njemačkom 1939.-1941. Bili odstupanja od lenjinističkih načela sovjetske vanjske politike. Sa pravnog stajališta, teritorijalna podjela na sovjetsku i njemačku interesnu sferu i druge radnje bile su u suprotnosti sa suverenitetom i neovisnošću nekoliko trećih zemalja.

Kongres primjećuje da su u tom razdoblju odnosi SSSR -a s Latvijom, Litvom i Estonijom bili regulirani sustavom ugovora. U skladu s Mirovnim ugovorima iz 1920. i Ugovorima o nenapadanju 1926.-1933., Potpisnici su bili dužni poštivati ​​suverenitet, teritorijalni integritet i nepovredivost jedni drugih pod bilo kojim okolnostima. Sovjetski Savez preuzeo je slične obveze prema Poljskoj i Finskoj.

6. Kongres navodi da Staljin i Molotov nisu otkrili sovjetskom narodu, Centralnom komitetu KPJ (B) i cijeloj stranci, niti Vrhovnom vijeću ili vladi SSSR -a da se pregovara s Njemačkom o tajnosti protokoli. Ti su protokoli uklonjeni iz postupaka rati fication.

Stoga je odluka o njihovom potpisivanju bila u biti i formirala čin osobne moći i ni na koji način nije odbijala volju sovjetskog naroda koji ne snosi nikakvu odgovornost za ovaj izdajnički dosluh.

7. Kongres narodnih zastupnika SSSR -a osuđuje činjenicu potpisivanja tajnog protokola 23. kolovoza 1939., kao i druge tajne sporazume sklopljene s Njemačkom. Kongres tajne protokole proglašava pravno neopravdanim i nevažećim od trenutka potpisivanja.

Protokoli nisu stvorili novu pravnu osnovu u odnosima između Sovjetskog Saveza i trećih zemalja, ali su ih Staljin i njegovi suradnici koristili za postavljanje ultimatuma i za vršenje pritiska na druge zemlje kršeći zakonske obveze koje je SSSR preuzeo prema tim zemljama.

8. Kongres narodnih zastupnika SSSR -a shvaćanje komplicirane i kontroverzne prošlosti smatra dijelom glasnosti, koja mora osigurati da svi ljudi u Sovjetskom Savezu imaju priliku razvijati se slobodno i ravnopravno u uvjetima zdravog , međusobno ovisan svijet i rastuće zajedničko razumijevanje.

Predsjednik Vrhovnog vijeća SSSR -a M. Gorbačov
Moskva, Kremlj, 24. prosinca 1989.

"Pravda" 28. prosinca 1989. godine.
Engleski prijevod u "Paktu Molotov-Ribbentrop: Izazov sovjetske povijesti" Heikija Lindperea. Estonski institut za vanjsku politiku, 2009.


Danas u povijesti Drugoga svjetskog rata - 24. prosinca 1939. i#038 1944

Prije 80 godina - 24. prosinca 1939 .: Na Badnjak, papa Pio XII poziva na mir.

Prije 75 godina - prosinac 24, 1944: U najvećoj ratnoj misiji, 2034 teška bombardera američkog Osmog zrakoplovstva bombardiraju njemačke ciljeve u Ardenima.

Brig. General Frederick Castle poginuo je u sudaru B-17 nakon što je dao svojoj posadi vremena da se spasi i dobit će Medalju časti.

Počinje dvodnevni nered u Guamu: bijeli marinci otvaraju vatru na crne marince koji su razgovarali s azijskim ženama. 2 crnca bit će ubijena u oružanim nemirima, a 43 crnca-i bez bijelaca-bit će vojno suđeno.

Balet San Francisco izvodi prvu cjelovečernju predstavu Orašar ikada u SAD -u.


Palestina

Preko 60.000 njemačkih Židova emigriralo je u Palestinu tijekom 1930 -ih, većina prema uvjetima Haavarinog (transfernog) sporazuma. Ovaj sporazum između Njemačke i židovskih vlasti u Palestini omogućio je židovsko iseljavanje u Palestinu. Glavna prepreka iseljavanju Židova iz Njemačke bilo je njemačko zakonodavstvo koje je zabranjivalo izvoz strane valute. Prema sporazumu, židovska imovina u Njemačkoj raspolagala bi se na uredan način, a rezultirajući kapital prebačen u Palestinu izvozom njemačkih proizvoda. Bijela knjiga Velike Britanije u svibnju 1939., politička izjava koju je odobrio britanski parlament, sadržavala je mjere koje su ozbiljno ograničavale ulazak Židova u Palestinu.


Događaji 1945. - Vremenska crta 2. svjetskog rata (1. siječnja - 31. prosinca 1945.)

I Nijemci i Japanci bili su na konopcima do početka 1945. Budući da su se Sovjeti približili njegovoj lokaciji, njemački vođa Adolph Hitler odlučio je da je samoubojstvo njegova najbolja opcija. Rat u Europi trajao je sljedećih mjesec dana. Na Pacifiku je upotreba atomskog oružja, kao i nemilosrdna kampanja bombardiranja iz zraka i kontinuirani uspjesi na zemlji i na moru značili da Japansko Carstvo nije imalo mnogo izbora nego se predati - što su i učinili u kolovozu, čime je službeno okončan borbe u Drugom svjetskom ratu.


Postoji ukupno (102) događaja iz 1945. - vremenska crta 2. svjetskog rata (1. siječnja - 31. prosinca 1945.) u bazi podataka Drugoga svjetskog rata. Unosi su dolje navedeni prema datumu pojavljivanja uzlazno (prvi do posljednji). Za perspektivu se mogu uključiti i drugi vodeći i završni događaji.

U nedjelju, 1. travnja - 30. travnja 1945

USN je zaslužan za potonuće četiri njemačka podmornice u, što se pokazalo posljednjim snimljenim borbenim akcijama u Atlantskom ratnom kazalištu.

Do svibnja 1945. pošast podmornica u Atlantiku je završena, čime je dovršena jedna od važnijih bitaka u cijelom Drugom svjetskom ratu.

U pripremama za desantno desantno desantno desant na otok Okinawa, američki pomorski elementi započinju bombardiranje položaja obale.

Do tada je američka mornarica bacila oko 30 000 eksplozivnih granata na obalu Okinawe, čime je okončan tjedan dana bombardiranja.

77. pješačka divizija SAD -a slijeće na otoke Kerama kako bi osigurala pozornicu za eventualnu invaziju na Okinawu.

Daljnje iskrcavanje američkih snaga na otoke Kerama dovršava njihovo zauzimanje za saveznike.

Dvije divizije američke vojske i USMC slijeću uz jugozapadnu obalu Okinawe blizu Hagushija, nailazeći na mali otpor. Desetom armijom SAD -a zapovijeda general -potpukovnik Simon Bolivar Buckner. U okršaju sudjeluje oko 550.000 ljudi i 180.000 vojnika.

Kako se američke snage kreću dalje prema unutrašnjosti, bitka za Okinavu se pojačava. Džepovi ukopanih japanskih branitelja postaju sve koncentriraniji što savezničke snage ulaze u unutrašnjost.

Američke snage sada se okupljaju kao dva odvojena napadačka fronta. Na sjeveru su 1. i 6. divizija marinaca. Na planinskom jugu su 7. i 96. pješačka divizija.

Smrtonosni zračni napad kamikaza izveden je na brodove američke mornarice u Pacifiku. Ovi zrakoplovi izgledaju kao koordinirani zračni napadi i pokazuju se jednako smrtonosnim za obje strane. Gađani su brodovi USN -a uz samu obalu Okinawe. Oko 34 broda američke mornarice postaju žrtve.

IJN Yamato, koji je već uočila američka podmornica, odlazi u borbe na Okinawi. Posada razumije da je ovo samoubilačka misija u ovom trenutku rata.

Američka 27. pješačka divizija slijeće na Tsugen. Otok je istočno od Okinawe.

U srijedu, 11. travnja 1945

Osvajanje Tsugena dovršava 27. pješačka divizija.

Američki marinci stižu do Hedo Pointa na sjeveru Okinawe.

Poduzima se petodnevna ofenziva koja uključuje američku 77. pješačku diviziju i otok Ie Shima. Ie Shima predstavlja vrh poluotoka Motobu. Motobu je obrambeno japansko uporište koje se nalazi zapadno od samog Okinawe.

Ofenziva za zauzimanje Ie Shime je završena.

Japanske branitelje američke snage guraju prema Nahi. Japanske obrambene linije poništavaju se s gubitkom teritorija. Amerikanci prijavljuju 1.000 žrtava u svojim napadima.

Poluotok Motobu pada u ruke Amerikanaca jer su japanski branitelji ubijeni ili zarobljeni.

Japanci su izveli veliku ofenzivu na jugu Okinawe. Od Nahe do Yonabarua uspostavljen je obrambeni front od obale do obale. Bez obzira na to, linija je na meti produžene američke vatrene moći i pješaštva.

Naha su službeno zauzele američke snage. Poluotok Orouku na jugu sada je nadohvat ruke.

Borbe na Okinawi privode se kraju jer američke snage nadvladavaju otoke odlučne japanske branitelje. Oni koji nisu zarobljeni ili poginu u borbama, podvrgavaju se ritualnim samoubojstvima.

Savezničke snage pronalaze i lociraju japanske branitelje duž južnog dijela Okinawe. Primjećuju se jake obrane.

Shvativši da je poraz neizbježan, japanski general -potpukovnik Mitsuru Ushjima izvršava ritualno samoubojstvo sa svojim osobljem nakon što je nadređenima prijavio gubitak Okinawe.

Bitka na Okinawi službeno se bliži kraju i sada predstavlja najvažnije pozorničko mjesto za savezničku invaziju na japansko kopno.

IJN Yamato, ponos i radost Japana i najveći bojni brod ikad izgrađen, isplovljava iz Unutarnjeg mora u samoubilačkoj misiji na Okinawi. Na posljednjem putovanju prati je laka krstarica Yahagi i osam osam razarača.

U ranim jutarnjim satima izviđački zrakoplovi američke mornarice uočili su IJN Yamato i prenijeli njezin položaj.

Radna grupa 38 lansira oko 380 zrakoplova protiv IJN Yamato.

Bez zračnog pokrivača, ratni zrakoplovi američke mornarice razrušili su IJN Yamato. Njezine prodavaonice časopisa eksplodiraju u fantastičnom prikazu dok se diže. Većina njezine posade izgubljena je s brodom u popodnevnim satima.

Do tada su japanski branitelji bili podijeljeni u tri velike borbene skupine. Više sirovih novaka lakše se predati nego boriti se do smrti.

Sovjetska vojska započinje svoju berlinsku kampanju spektakularnim prikazom topništva, eksplodirajući ciljeve diljem Berlina i okolice. Bombardiranje označava početak ofenzive za preuzimanje njemačke prijestolnice.

Skupine sovjetske vojske napreduju protiv njemačke obrane na rijeci Odri.

Adolf Hitler slavi svoj posljednji (56.) rođendan, naizgled nesvjestan sudbine koja će zadesiti njega i njegovu Njemačku.

General Žukov i njegova prva bjeloruska vojska provalili su u predgrađa Berlina.

U srijedu, 22. travnja 1945

Sovjetski vođa Staljin šalje posljednje naredbe o napadu generalima Žukovu i Konjevu.

Predgrađa Berlina postupno padaju pod sovjetsku kontrolu, jer borbe bjesne posvuda.

Njemački general Wenck iz 12. armije pokreće uzaludnu protuofenzivu protiv sovjetskog napada.

Britansko kraljevsko zrakoplovstvo usporilo je ofenzivu 12. armije intenzivnim bombardiranjem.

Prvi bjeloruski front sastaje se sa svetim ukrajinskim frontom, formalno okružujući Berlin.

Sovjetske snage odsjekle su sve pristupne točke zapadno od njemačkog glavnog grada.

Preko 2 milijuna berlinskih civila grči se zbog nasilnih borbi koje predstoje.

Oko 30.000 njemačkih vojnika spremilo se za krvavi posao dana.

Dvojna sovjetska ofenziva razbija posljednje obrambene bojišnice Nijemaca.

Sovjetske snage napreduju preko rijeke Spree.

Sovjetske snage napreduju prema Unter den Lindenu.

Sovjetska armija zaustavila je 12. armiju generala Wencka.

Sovjetska vojska ostaje samo 15 milja od centra Berlina.

Njemački vojnici postavili su obrambena područja na malom frontu dugom 10 milja radi svoje konačne "posljednje pozicije".

Sovjeti zauzimaju Reichstag.

Njemački vođa Adolf Hitler vjenčao se sa svojom ljubavnicom Evom Braun u svom podzemnom bunkeru ispod Berlina. Nakon što je održao posljednji govor svojim preostalim pristašama, truje svog psa, zatim Brauna i na kraju si oduzima život. U oporuci prepušta svoja ovlaštenja admiralu Doenitzu.

Tijela Adolpha Hitlera i Eve Braun odvoze se u vrtove kancelara i spaljuju prema prethodnim Hitlerovim naredbama, kako bi se izbjeglo zarobljavanje i konačno poniženje od strane napredujuće Sovjetske vojske.

Sovjetsko topništvo ponovno se otvara, ovaj put u velikoj paljbi protiv Kancelarije i okolnih područja.

Njemački ministar propagande Joseph Goebbels ubio je svoju ženu i šestero djece prije nego što si je oduzeo život.

Njemačke snage diljem Berlina počinju se predavati.

Pad Berlina je dovršen - sovjetske snage zauzimaju sve glavne dijelove njemačke prijestolnice.

Rat u Europi službeno se privodi kraju.

Ovaj dan je službeno najavljen kao "Dan VE", a obilježavanja izbijaju diljem svijeta, iako se borbe na Pacifiku protiv Japanskog carstva nastavljaju.

General Chuikov odlazi u središte Berlina.

Njemački generaloberst Hans Krebs prilazi Chuikovu uz formalnu njemačku predaju.

Berlin se formalno i bezuvjetno predaje sovjetskim legijama i zapadnim saveznicima. General Jodl potpisuje za poražene Nijemce, a generali Bedell Smith i Suslaparov za saveznike.

Elementi 5. gardijske armije stižu do rijeke Labe u Torgau i slave s dolaskom prve američke armije.

Nekoliko tjedana borbe vide kako su njemačke snage uništene, zarobljene ili poslane u ambalažu dok se saveznici pregrupiraju i odgovaraju.

U srijedu, 7. veljače 1945

Do tog datuma su izbrisani svi njemački dobici Ardennske ofenzive.

U srijedu, 7. veljače 1945

Njemački gubitak života nevjerojatnih je 82.000 ljudi, premda je to samo 77.000 žrtava koje je pretrpjela američka vojska.

U subotu, 6. siječnja 1945

Britanski premijer Winston Churchill na zapadu putem telegrama sa sovjetskim vođom Josipom Staljinom na istoku koordinira pokretanje kombinirane ofenzive u siječnju. Churchill planira 20. kao ciljani datum.

Staljin pomiče datum početka ofenzive za 12. siječnja.

Crvena armija pokreće masovnu ofenzivu protiv njemačkih neprijatelja duž Istočne fronte. Njegove mete su njemačka grupa armija A i grupa armija Centar smještene u istočnoj Pruskoj i Poljskoj. Bojna linija duga je fronta od litvanske obale do regije Balkana.

Ofenzivu Crvene armije na čelu koplja vode 1., 2. i 3. bjeloruska fronta, kao i 1. baltička fronta kojoj se pridružila 1. ukrajinska fronta.

Prvi napadi sovjetske vojske pokazali su se pozitivnim protiv njemačke obrane.

U utorak, 16. siječnja 1945

Adolf Hitler prestrojava svoje snage, slabeći ključna područja obrane, u pokušaju bočnog napada protiv Crvene armije u blizini Poznanja.

U srijedu, 17. siječnja 1945

Glavni grad Poljske Varšava službeno pripada napredujućoj Sovjetskoj vojsci.

U srijedu, 17. siječnja 1945

Sovjetske snage angažiraju njemačke neprijatelje u Istočnoj Pruskoj, a ostvaruju se uspjesi prema Danzigu i Konigsbergu.

U subotu, 20. siječnja 1945

Hitler naređuje svojoj 6. SS tenkovskoj armiji da izađe iz šume Ardennes na Zapadnom frontu prema Budimpešti, Mađarska na istoku.

Sovjetski general Konev i njegov prvi ukrajinski front prelaze rijeku Odru kod Steinaua.

U četvrtak, 25. siječnja 1945

Hitler reorganizira svoje snage pod novim imenima Grupa armija Sjever, Grupa armija Centar i Grupa armija Visla.

U četvrtak, 1. veljače 1945

Njemačke snage u Kustrinu izlijeću iz kolosijeka svaki daljnji napredak Sovjeta prema Berlinu. Prvi bjeloruski front generala Žukova je zaustavljen.

U subotu, 3. veljače 1945

General Žukov i njegov 1. bjeloruski front kombiniraju snage s 1. ukrajinskim frontom generala Koneva uz rijeku Odru kod Kustrina.

U subotu, 3. veljače 1945

Sovjetske bojišnice do tada su imale oko 50 kilometara duž rijeke Odre.

Snage sovjetske vojske počinju prelaziti rijeku Odru u Njemačku.

U četvrtak, 15. veljače 1945

Njemački grad Breslau okružen je sovjetskim trupama.

U četvrtak, 22. veljače 1945

Poznan pada pod sovjetsku vojsku nakon predaje obrambenih njemačkih trupa.

U subotu, 24. veljače 1945

Prvi ukrajinski front generala Koneva polaže pravo na Donju Šleziju.

Iz Mađarske, grupe sovjetske vojske započinju ofenzivu na Austriju uz rijeku Dunav. Meta je Beč.

Sovjetski front dobiva ogromnu snagu od početka ofenzive u siječnju. Snage su udaljene samo 50 milja od Berlina.

U tijeku su pripreme za posljednju bitku za Berlin.

U utorak, 13. veljače 1945

805 bombardera RAF -a izravnalo je njemački grad Dresden, ubivši do 130.000 njegovih stanovnika. Napad je značajan po tome što je Dresden imao njemačku vojnu ili stratešku vrijednost.

U nedjelju, 1. travnja - 30. travnja 1945

Posljednji napad američkih srednjih bombardera pokrenut je protiv Schweinfurta.

U utorak, 1. svibnja - 31. svibnja 1945

Posljednje putovanje Artic Convoy - s oznakom JW67 - završeno je između Britana i Rusije.

U utorak, 3. - 11. srpnja 1945

Oko 6000 ljudi, preostalih iz desetkovane japanske 33. armije, napalo je savezničke položaje u Wawu. Borbe traju do 11. srpnja, kada napadače napokon tjeraju kombinirani saveznički zračni i kopneni napadi.

Saveznici izvode amfibijsko iskrcavanje u zaljevu Sarangini u koraku prema uklanjanju japanskih branitelja u Mindanau.

Amerikanci dovršavaju detonaciju prve atomske bombe na svijetu pod kodnim imenom "Manhattan Project". Operacija se odvija u Alamogordu u Novom Meksiku. Takve se bombe namjeravaju koristiti na kopnu Japana kako bi se završio rat.

U utorak, 17. srpnja - 2. kolovoza 1945

Saveznički čelnici sastaju se na Potsdamskoj konferenciji kako bi razgovarali o poslijeratnom svjetskom poretku. Chuchill, Roosevelt i Staljin primarni su prisutni.

Elementi japanske 28. armije pokušavaju istisnuti Pegu Yomas protiv indijske 17.. Japanske snage pobijene su vatrom i bijeg ne uspijeva.

Japanski branitelji na Mindanau na Filipinima su poraženi.

Japanski čelnici zanemaruju proglase savezničkih čelnika izrečene na konferenciji u Potsdamu.

U kazalištu na Dalekom istoku u Burmi uništeni su preostali elementi japanske 28. armije.

Boeing B -29 Superfortress 'Enola Gay' baca prvu od dvije atomske bombe na japansko kopno - cilj je gusto naseljeni grad Hiroshima. U eksploziji je poginulo oko 70.000 njenih građana, a još 70.000 je ozlijeđeno. U posljednjih nekoliko godina mnogi će umrijeti od njegovih posljedica.

U Mandžurijskom kazalištu Sovjeti angažiraju oko 1,5 milijuna vojnika protiv japanske vojske Kwantung.

Američki bombarder B-29 isporučuje drugu atomsku bombu na japansko kopno, ovaj put na grad Nagasaki. Ovo je izravan odgovor na to što su Tokio zanemarili prethodne saveznike ultimatume koji pozivaju na hitnu i bezuvjetnu predaju. U eksploziji je poginulo oko 35.000, a ozlijeđeno je još 60.000 građana.

Nakon pada druge atomske bombe na jedan od većih gradova, japanski car formalno podržava japansku predaju pod uvjetima navedenim u Potsdamskoj konferenciji.

U srijedu, 15. kolovoza 1945

Prvi put tijekom svog mandata car Hirohito obraća se svom narodu, pozivajući svoje zapovjednike da podrže njegovu naredbu o predaji saveznicima.

U četvrtak, 23. kolovoza 1945

Sovjeti tvrde potpunu pobjedu u Mandžuriji nad poraženom japanskom vojskom. Rat je osvojio osvojenih oko 80.000 KIA -a s daljnjih 594.000 zarobljenih za nepoznatu sudbinu. Za usporedbu, Sovjeti gube samo 8.000 svojih s 22.000 ranjenih.

U nedjelju, 2. rujna 1945

Službena japanska predaja odvija se na palubi američkog bojnog broda USS Missouri. Japanski čelnici potpisuju predaju ispred američkog generala Douglasa MacArthura. Stigao je kraj Drugog svjetskog rata - s danom VJ.


Kratka povijest trgovine koja radi 24 sata

Zamislite, na trenutak, ugao ulice u New Yorku. Možda postoji zalutalo smeće u olucima, može biti gomila turista, možda postoji taksi koji je skrenuo samo malo previše uz rub pločnika. Postoji velika šansa da postoji trgovina u koju možete ući u bilo koje doba dana i noći i zadovoljiti želju za kavom ili sendvičem sa slaninom, jajem i sirom.

Trgovine otvorene 24 sata prisutne su diljem Amerike. Od 152.794 trgovine koje je navelo Nacionalno udruženje trgovina, 90 posto radi non-stop. Samo u New Yorku ima više od 1500 neovisno vodenih bodega, teško je zamisliti pet okruga bez njih.

No, postojalo je vrijeme, ne tako davno, kada su stanovnici grada morali ići od trgovine do trgovine kako bi kupili svoja jaja, led i jeftino pivo. Njihovu ponoćnu žudnju dočekali su zaključana vrata i prigušena svjetla. Samoposluga, kakva je danas, nije postojala.

Jeff Lenard, potpredsjednik NACS -a, priznaje tvrtki Southland Ice Company rođenje moderne trgovine. Godine 1927. “Ujak Johnny ” Jefferson Green vodio je Southland Ice Dock u Oak Cliffu u Dallasu, gdje su ljudi dolazili opskrbiti se zamrzivačima dugim nogama koje su nosili kući kako bi rashladili hranu. Za razliku od lokalnih trgovina mješovitom robom, Ice Dock je već bio otvoren 16 sati dnevno, sedam dana u tjednu. “Pa je [Green] pomislio, ‘zasto ne biste prodali i mlijeko, kruh i jaja? ’ ” Lenard kaze.

Southland Ice Company uvidjela je potencijal u ideji ujaka Johnnyja i spojila operacije na različitim lokacijama prema proširenom rasporedu od 7 do 23 sata. U � te su se trgovine zvale 7-Eleven.

Tvrtki bi trebalo 36 godina da usvoji 24-satni model, a kad je to učinilo, to je bila nesreća: nakon nogometne utakmice na Sveučilištu u Teksasu, kupci su preplavili 7-Eleven u Austinu. “To se nije moglo ’t zatvoriti, ” primjećuje web stranicu tvrtke. Trgovina je ostala otvorena cijelu noć. Nehotični je model bio toliko uspješan da je uvijek otvoren 7-Elevens namjerno počeo nizati prvu cjelonoćnu ispostavu, što možda i nije iznenađujuće, u Las Vegasu.

Ovo je put do cjelonoćne maloprodaje koji je najjasniji: niz sretnih nesreća, koje kapitalizira jedna tvrtka. No, gadnije 24-satne operacije postojale su drugdje prije nego što se 7-Elevens spustio u Grad grijeha.

Godine 1939. Rose Gold, 67-godišnji vlasnik trgovine slatkišima u četvrti Brownsville u Brooklynu, optužen je za krivokletstvo i reketiranje. Članak o njezinom uhićenju u Brooklyn Daily Eagle opisala je svoju trgovinu kao ȁizvanrednog izgleda. ”

Njezini susjedi bili su iznenađeni njezinim uhićenjem, no na upit je vlasnik obližnje trgovine priznao: “Naravno, držali su mjesto otvoreno cijelu noć ” nitko ne bi svjedočio ničemu sumnjivom.

Diljem zemlje, Hollywood Ranch Market također je imao danonoćnu reputaciju i reputaciju sjemenki. Čak i prije 1952. godine, njegov znak je proklamirao “We Never Close ” a Vrijeme članak časopisa iz siječnja te godine opisuje:

… [it] je bacio bačeni ključ, zapošljava tri smjene kako bi ostao otvoren 24 sata svaki dan, uključujući i nedjelju, u svojim trgovinama gotovo u 3 sata ujutro kao u 15:00 ….

Noću se tržište udvostručilo kao spremište za holivudski noćni život, priča Geraldine Holt koja je uzimala karte, rođena u Šangaju. Hollywood zapamćen: usmena povijest svog zlatnog doba kako:

Da niste radili, otišli biste tamo u dva ujutro. Zato što bi Marlon Brando, Harry Belafonte i druge zvijezde tada vodile svoje žene ili djevojke u kupovinu, misleći da mogu izbjeći gužvu. Ali svi smo bili tamo.

Kulturni pomaci koji su se dogodili diljem zemlje također su potaknuli pomak prema 24-satnoj maloprodaji na način da se aktivnosti na obalama nisu mogle same održati. Predsjednik Eisenhower potpisao je savezni Zakon o autocestama 1956. godine, kojim se odobrava sustav međudržavnih autocesta i 41.000 milja novih cesta, a sve je to zahtijevalo gorivo za automobile i njihove vozače danonoćno. Večerašnja emisija sa Steveom Allenom premijerno prikazan 1954., potičući gledatelje da ostanu budni do ponoći. I Lenard kaže da su Amerikanci radili kasnije, kaže da su se 24-satne trgovine rano otvarale na mjestima poput tvornica i bolnica, gdje je rad u smjenama postajao sve češći. I isto Vrijeme u članku časopisa napominje se: 𠇋rz trend je činjenica da obrambeni program, privlačeći sve više i više žena u radnu snagu, otežava ženama kupovinu tijekom dana. ”

Nije bilo preokreta ove plime. Članak iz 1972. u Milwaukee Sentinel primili su na znanje porast, kako u gradovima tako i u predgrađima. U cijeloj zemlji 4 posto supermarketa s više od 500.000 dolara godišnjeg poslovanja prešlo je na 24-satni raspored. “Kakvi ljudi kupuju u 3 ujutro? ” članak pita.

Vlasnici trgovina rekli su da ljudi dobivaju presjek izbjegavajući kasno popodne gužvu u trgovini i na autocestama, obitelji s autom dostupnim samo za noćnu kupovinu žena čiji su muževi doma s posla brinući se o djeci netko kome treba mlijeko ili aspirin u hitnim slučajevima. Zabavljači ponekad kupuju grickalice nekoliko puta tijekom noći. Muškarci koji kasne s posla mijenjaju obitelji koje žele cijeli dan besplatno za rekreaciju, pa čak i neke nesanice.

Očigledno, bez zastarjele rodne dinamike, taj bi popis izgledao približno isto u 2016.  


24 Slike brutalnog masakra u Nankingu

Masakr u Nankingu bio je epizoda masovnog silovanja i ubojstva koje su japanske trupe počinile nad stanovnicima Nankinga, tada glavnog grada Republike Kine tijekom Drugog kinesko-japanskog rata.

Masakr se dogodio u razdoblju od šest tjedana, počevši od 13. prosinca 1937. godine, na dan kada su Japanci zauzeli Nanking. Procjenjuje se da su vojnici Imperijalne japanske vojske ubili otprilike 40.000 do preko 300.000 i počinili široku pljačku i silovanje. Budući da su japanski vojni zapisi o ubojstvima držani u tajnosti ili uništeni nakon predaje 1945., povjesničari nisu mogli točno procijeniti broj poginulih. Međunarodni vojni sud za Daleki istok u Tokiju procijenio je 1946. da je u incidentu ubijeno 200.000 Kineza. Zvanična procjena Kine i rsquosa je više od 300.000 mrtvih na temelju procjene Nanking suda za ratne zločine 1947. godine.

Međunarodni vojni sud za Daleki istok procijenio je da je, osim djece i starijih osoba, silovano i 20.000 žena. Dana 19. prosinca 1937. velečasni James M. McCallum zapisao je u svoj dnevnik: & ldquoNe znam gdje završiti. Nikada nisam čuo ili pročitao takvu brutalnost. Silovanje! Silovanje! Silovanje! Procjenjujemo najmanje 1.000 slučajeva noću, a mnogo i danju. U slučaju otpora ili bilo čega što izgleda kao neodobravanje, dolazi do uboda bajunetom ili metka i hellip Ljudi su histerični & hellip Žene se odvode svako jutro, popodne i navečer. Čini se da cijela japanska vojska može slobodno ići i dolaziti kako hoće, i činiti što god želi. & Rdquo

Kineska vlada optužena je za pretjerivanje u aspektima masakra, dok povijesni negacionisti i japanski nacionalisti idu čak do toga da tvrde da je masakr izmišljen u propagandne svrhe. Negiranje masakra i revizionistički izvještaji o ubojstvima postali su temelj japanskog nacionalizma. U Japanu javno mnijenje o masakrima varira, ali rijetki poriču da je došlo do sukoba.

KINA & ndash 1. PROSINCA: Rat između Kine i Japana: okupacija i invazija Nankina u prosincu 1937. Fotografija: Keystone-France/Gamma-Keystone putem Getty Images 14. prosinca 1937., Nanjing, provincija Jiangsu, Kina & mdash Izvorni natpis: Napravljen dan nakon što su 13. prosinca zauzeli bivši glavni grad Kine, ova slika prikazuje pobjedničke japanske pješake koji patroliraju zgradom u kojoj je prethodno bilo smješteno Ministarstvo financija vlade Nankinga . Pronašli su dragocjeno malo novca koji su ostavili Kinezi koji su se povukli. Obratite pažnju na maskirni ratni tenk u dvorištu građevine. & mdash Slika & Acirc & kopirajte Bettmann/CORBIS Uništenje u Nankingu, Kina, napadom Japana, 4. siječnja 1938. AP Photo Japanski osvajači zatekli su ovaj dio Nankinga napuštenim kad su silom ušli u grad, ali rad Kineza na paljenju grada može se primijetiti u pozadini, 28. prosinca 1937. Plamen koji je bio široko rasprostranjen tek je postajao sve veći u tijeku. Primijetite japanske vojnike na ulici. AP fotografija


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Ažurira problem zbog kojeg se aplikacije neočekivano zatvaraju kada korisnik unese istočnoazijske znakove nakon promjene rasporeda tipkovnice.


Socijalno osiguranje

Autor želi zahvaliti na pomoći koju su pružili sljedeći članovi Ureda za zakonodavnu i regulatornu politiku Uprave za socijalno osiguranje: Peggy S. Fisher, direktorica, i Timothy K. Evans, te Richard L. Griffiths, zaposlenici Odjela za umirovljenje i beneficije za preživjele.

Danas slavimo 50. obljetnicu saveznog programa socijalnog osiguranja, sada poznatog jednostavno kao "socijalno osiguranje", koji se pojavio 1935. godine kao dio odgovora nacije na nevolje starijih osoba. Program socijalnog osiguranja iz 1980-ih izravni je potomak ograničenog programa doprinosa za starosne beneficije donesenog 1935. Program, koji danas pokriva gotovo sva radna mjesta, i dalje ima određene osnovne karakteristike koje se nalaze u izvornom programu, odnosno is earned through work in covered jobs, participation is generally compulsory, the amount of the benefits is related to covered earnings, the program is intended to provide a base of protection, and benefits are financed primarily through dedicated payroll taxes paid by workers and their employers .

Yet, while the program fundamentals have remained the same over 5 decades, much has changed. As American work and life patterns have changed, so too Social Security has been adapted to meet current expectations. The legislative history of the program, described briefly below, shows clearly how Social Security has retained its essential characteristics as it has evolved to keep pace with the times.

By the end of the First World War, a primarily agrarian American society had become a primarily urban, industrialized one. Thus, on the eve of the Great Depression of the 1930's, a larger proportion of the American people were dependent on cash wages for their support than ever before. By 1932, however, unemployment reached 34 percent of the nonagricultural workforce. Between 1929 and 1932, national income dropped by 43 percent, per capita income by 19 percent. By the mid-1930's, the lifetime savings of millions of people had been wiped out.

For vast numbers of aged people, and people nearing old age, the loss of their savings brought with it the prospect of living their remaining years in destitution. At the height of the Depression, many old people were literally penniless. One-third to one-half of the aged were dependent on family or friends for support. The poor houses and other relief agencies that existed at the time to assist people who had fallen on hard times were financed mainly from charity and local funds. They could not begin--either financially or conceptually--to respond adequately to the special needs of the aged brought about by the cataclysmic events of the Depression.

Before Social Security, many people faced destitution in old age

Although by 1934, 30 States had responded by providing pensions for the needy aged, total expenditures for State programs for the aged that year were $31 million--an average of $19.74 a month per aged person. As the Depression worsened, benefits to individuals were cut further to enable States to spread available funds among as many people as possible.

Various national schemes to provide income to the aged received substantial attention. These included the Townsend Old-Age Revolving Pension Plan and a plan called "Share the Wealth" advanced by Louisiana Senator Huey P. Long.

Under the Townsend plan, every American over age 60 was to get a monthly pension, provided he or she did not work and promised to spend the entire payment during the month. Under Long's plan, large personal fortunes would be liquidated to finance (1) pensions for the aged and (2) cash payments to every family sufficient to buy a home, a car, and radio.

Due in large part to the public and congressional pressures for some Federal response to the chaotic conditions of the time, in June 1934, a Committee on Economic Security was established by Executive Order of President Franklin Roosevelt. This Cabinet-level Committee, chaired by Frances Perkins, the Secretary of Labor, was given the task of developing constructive, long-term proposals for the prevention of all the major causes of economic insecurity. Given the desperate conditions of the time, the Committee's major attention was focused on programs to protect the unemployed. Yet, amid some controversy about the feasibility and constitutionality of such a plan, there developed from the work of the Committee a proposal for compulsory, contributory old-age insurance, which was ultimately enacted as part of the Social Security Act.

The Social Security Act, enacted on August 14, 1935, provided a new federally administered system of social insurance for the aged financed through payroll taxes paid by employees and their employers. Under the system, which applied only to workers in commerce and industry, people would earn retirement benefit eligibility as they worked. With some exceptions, benefits would be related to workers' average covered earnings, and workers could not have earnings and still be eligible for benefits. No benefits were provided for spouses or children, and lump-sum refunds were provided to the estates of workers who died before age 65 or before receiving at least the equivalent in benefits of their taxes plus interest. Collection of payroll taxes began in 1937, and benefit payments were scheduled to begin in 1942.

Even as the Social Security legislation moved through the Congress in the late winter and spring of 1935, it was acknowledged by many supporters that the old-age program then under consideration was but a first step in providing comprehensive protection for American workers against loss of earnings. President Roosevelt, in signing the Social Security Bill into law noted that "This law, too, represents a cornerstone in a structure which is being built but is by no means complete." In May 1937 the month in which the old-age program survived a crucial constitutional test in the landmark Helvering v. Davis case (in which the employer Social Security payroll tax was found constitutional), the Senate Committee on Finance and the Social Security Board jointly appointed an Advisory Council on Social Security. This outside advisory group, which would be the first of many to study and make recommendations concerning Social Security over the years,* was instructed to study possible ways of making the program more fully effective sooner than contemplated under the 1935 law.

(* Appointment of outside advisory bodies has long been institutionalized as a tradition in Social Security policymaking. Numerous advisory bodies have met over the years, and most of the changes made in Social Security have been based in large part on their studies and recommendations. The law has since 1956 required periodic appointment of Advisory Councils.)

The Council's fundamental finding was an endorsement of contributory old-age insurance as a way of preventing dependency in old age and thereby reducing reliance on needs-tested assistance. Further, the Council recommended a benefit structure that, in addition to basic benefits for workers, would provide protection for aged wives, widows, and surviving children starting in 1940.

Based on the Advisory Council's recommendations and recognizing the heavy dependence of most families on the male wage earner at that time, the Congress, in 1939, enacted legislation that eliminated lump-sum payroll tax refunds and provided benefits for aged wives and widows, young children of retired and deceased workers, young widows caring for a child beneficiary, and dependent parents of retired and deceased workers.

Unemployment affected many families during the Great Depression of the 1930s

The Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives and the Senate Committee on Finance, in their reports on the 1939 amendments, reasoned that "Under a social-insurance plan the primary purpose is to pay benefits in accordance with the probable needs of the beneficiaries rather than to make payments to the estate of a deceased person regardless of whether or not he leaves dependents."

The 1939 legislation also provided a new method of computing benefits, based on average monthly earnings instead of on cumulative wages. The net effect of the 1939 amendments was to increase the annual cost of benefits payable during the early years and to decrease the annual cost of benefits payable during later years. Over the long range, the average annual cost of benefits remained about the same as under prior law.

In addition to these changes in benefits, the 1939 amendments made basic changes in the financing of the Social Security program by establishing the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund and by changing the size of the financial reserves held by the program. The provisions of prior law would have resulted in the accumulation of a huge reserve fund over the years, similar to the reserves built up by private pension plans. The new legislation was designed to constrain the accumulation of reserves and, in effect, to move the financing of the program toward "pay-as-you-go" financing. This change in the reserve concept allowed the immediate payment of benefits to retired workers and to their dependents and survivors without increasing Social Security tax rates. This change in financing also permitted a 3-year postponement of the increases in the Social Security tax rate that had been scheduled for 1940.

Other recommendations of the 1938 Council that were enacted in 1939 included:

  • Provision for benefits to start in 1940 instead of 1942
  • Revision of the earnings test, allowing earnings of $14.99 a month before benefits were withheld and
  • A method of measuring whether an individual had worked long enough in covered employment to get a benefit--based on "quarters of coverage" the measure on which today's methods are based.

Following implementation of the 1939 amendments, the basic Social Security program was in place. It would remain essentially unchanged over the 1940's as the Nation concentrated its efforts on fighting World War II and toward building a healthy post-war economy. Social Security legislation enacted during these years included further postponement of tax rate increases, minor changes in coverage, and provision for coordinating the survivor benefits payable under the Social Security and Railroad Retirement Acts. Nevertheless, Social Security grew in importance both to the aged and to the economy. The number of beneficiaries grew from about 222,000 at the end of 1940 to over 3 million in 1949. Average monthly benefits grew only slightly, however--from $22.60 for a retired worker in 1940 to $26 at the end of the decade-- less than the rate of inflation.

The Advisory Council on Social Security, 1937-1938 The Post-War Era By the end of the immediate post-war period, Social Security had arrived at a major crossroads.

  • The purchasing power of benefits had been sharply reduced by inflation. (By 1950, the cost of living had risen by three-quarters since 1939.)
  • There was growing recognition that, as the Committee on Economic Security had pointed out, the hazards of economic insecurity due to disability were at least as great as the hazards faced by retirees.
  • The program had not reduced the need for public assistance among older persons. On the contrary, the percentage of the aged receiving old-age assistance was somewhat larger (22.5) in 1950 than it had been in 1940 (21.7).

To help it determine the appropriate ongoing role of social insurance in the Nation's income support system, in 1947, the Senate Committee on Finance named an Advisory Council on Social Security. The findings of this Council formed a major milestone in the history of Social Security by reaffirming in the post-Depression era the social insurance principles established in the 1930's. In the Introduction to its report, the Council said:

"Opportunity for the individual to secure protection for himself and his family against the economic hazards of old age and death is essential to the sustained welfare, freedom, and dignity of the American citizen. For some, such protection can be gained through individual savings and other private arrangements. For others, such arrangements are inadequate or too uncertain. Since the interest of the whole Nation is involved, the people, using the Government as the agency for their cooperation, should make sure that all members of the community have at least a basic measure of protection against the major hazards of old age and death."

With respect to the existing old-age and survivors insurance (OASI) program, the Council was unanimous in finding three major deficiencies: inadequate coverage unduly restrictive eligibility requirements for older workers and inadequate benefits. To remedy these problems, the Council recommended a general benefit increase a doubling of the minimum benefit provision of benefits for additional dependents and survivors and extension of coverage beyond the original boundaries of commerce and industry to self-employed workers, farm and domestic workers, Federal civilian employees not under a retirement system, State and local governmental employees, and employees of nonprofit organizations. In order to provide more adequate benefits to workers in these groups who were already middle-aged or older when their jobs were first covered, the Council recommended a "new-start" benefit computation. The 1948 Advisory Council also strongly recommended extension of the social insurance approach to provide a program of cash benefits to the permanently and totally disabled. The program recommended by the Council would pay benefits after a 6-month waiting period only to those with severe and long-lasting disabilities, would provide for expenditures of Social Security funds for rehabilitation of disabled workers, and would terminate benefits to workers who refused to accept physical examinations or rehabilitation. As its first order of business, in 1950, the Congress addressed the erosion in the value of Social Security benefits due to the inflation that had occurred since the inception of the program. The 1950 amendments provided for general benefit increases and increases in the minimum benefit that amounted to an across-the-board increase of about 77 percent. Echoing the view of the 1948 Advisory Council with respect to the ongoing role for the Social Security system, the Senate Committee on Finance said in its report of the 1950 amendments:

"Your committee's impelling concern in recommending passage of [this bill] has been to take immediate, effective steps to cut down the need for further expansion of public assistance, particularly old-age assistance. . .We believe that improvement of the American social-security system should be in the direction of preventing dependency before it occurs and of providing more effective income protection, free from the humiliation of a test of need. . . & quot

To finance this substantial benefit increase and other program improvements, the 1950 amendments increased the contribution and benefit base (the amount of annual wages subject to Social Security taxes and creditable for benefits) from $3,000 to $3,600 and provided a revised schedule of gradually increasing tax rates for employers, employees, and the newly covered self-employed. The new law also repealed a never-used provision which authorized appropriations to the program from general revenues if they were needed. These changes made clear the Congress' rejection of Federal general revenues as a major source of Social Security financing and underscored its view that Social Security should be self-supporting in both the short range and the long range.

The Congress also began in 1950 to focus on the coverage deficiencies identified by the 1948 Council. These deficiencies, of course, had previously been recognized by the framers of the original law. At the inception of Social Security, there had been virtually unanimous agreement among supporters of the social insurance concept that, in order to assure adequate protection to the greatest number of workers, coverage should be both compulsory and as nearly universal as possible. Universal, compulsory coverage was also looked upon as the best means of spreading the cost of the program over the largest possible group, and thus avoiding problems of adverse selection and windfall benefits.

As noted earlier, the 1935 Act provided compulsory coverage for workers in commerce and industry initially, about 6 in 10 jobs were covered. Coverage was not extended to other jobs for a number of reasons. Administrative considerations prevented quick development of methods of collecting taxes and providing coverage for the self-employed and for farm workers. Some groups, primarily railroad workers and Federal employees, already had retirement systems. In addition, legal and constitutional concerns involving taxation of States and localities prevented immediate extension of coverage to employees of State and local governments.

By 1950, with a decade of experience under the Social Security program behind them, the Congress concluded that many of the obstacles to universal coverage were not as formidable as they had appeared at the beginning. Thus, legislation enacted in 1950 extended coverage to several major categories of workers, including regularly employed farm and domestic workers non-farm self-employed persons (except professionals) Federal civilian workers and, at the election of employees and employers, State and local government employees not covered under another retirement program and employees of nonprofit organizations other than ministers.

Because many of the workers newly covered under the 1950 amendments were already middle-aged or older, the principle of enabling newly covered older workers to become insured more easily and making their benefits more comparable to those of other covered workers with similar earnings was established. The 1950 amendments included a so-called new-start benefit computation that based benefit amounts on earnings after 1950 and companion provisions for measuring insured status in terms of work after 1950.

Four years later (in 1954), another 10 million workers' jobs were covered in 1956, another million were added. Social Security legislation enacted in 1954 and 1956 extended coverage to (among others) the farm self-employed, certain groups of professional self-employed (generally with the exception of physicians), members of the uniformed services, and State and local government employees under a retirement system, under various conditions. Thus, by the mid-1950's, some 20 years after enactment of Social Security, the protection offered under the program was available to 90 percent of workers.

During the 1950's, the Congress also undertook lengthy consideration of another of the 1948 Advisory Council's recommendations--extension of Social Security protection to disabled workers.

The House-passed version of the 1950 Social Security Amendments would have provided for a program of disability insurance along the lines recommended by the Council, but the final bill made no such provision. Instead, the 1950 amendments provided for extension of the State-Federal public assistance program to the permanently and totally disabled, as had been urged by a minority of the Advisory Council's members.

Later, in 1954, the Congress enacted a disability "freeze" provision. No cash disability benefits were payable under this provision, but workers who were permanently and totally disabled and who also met insured status tests could have their Social Security earnings records frozen as of the date of their disability. Through the "freeze" provision, disabled workers could prevent their retirement benefits from being diluted by many years of no earnings. Other provisions of the 1954 amendments provided for expansion of State vocational rehabilitation programs to address the difficult problem of rehabilitating the severely disabled.

Eight years after the 1948 Advisory Council had recommended it, Congress in 1956 established a cash disability insurance program--with benefits first payable in 1957--with essentially the same eligibility requirements passed by the House in 1950. Because of concern about the high costs of a disability program and potential abuse, however, benefits were payable only to workers who were at least 50 years old. These amendments established basic principles under which the disability program continues to operate today:

  • "Disability" is defined as the inability to engage in substantial gainful activity (prior to legislation in 1965, permanent disability was required the 1965 legislation provided the present-law requirement that the disability be expected to last at least 12 months or be expected to result in death) Disability must be established on the basis of objective medical evidence Eligibility is based on both duration and recency of work in covered employment
  • Benefits are paid only after a waiting period
  • A proportion of Social Security funds may be spent for rehabilitation of disabled workers and
  • Workers who refuse to accept physical examinations or rehabilitation may lose their benefits.

In 1958, the insured status requirements for disability benefits were relaxed through elimination of the currently insured status requirement and benefits were extended to spouses and children of disabled workers. Two years later, the minimum age requirement for disabled workers was eliminated and a trial work period provision added to encourage disabled workers to return to work.

By 1960, then, the old-age, survivors, and disability insurance (OASDI) programs were essentially in place as we know them today. Coverage under the program had been made nearly universal , so that virtually all people reaching retirement age in the decades to come would be able to establish benefit eligibility. Over the 1960's, the OASDI programs were refined through legislation to create new categories of beneficiaries, to increase benefits so as to maintain their purchasing power, and to adjust tax rates to assure adequate program financing. Moreover, legislation enacted in 1961 lowered the age of benefit eligibility for men. When the Social Security program was established, benefits were made available to men and women at age 65. The Social Security Amendments of 1956 had provided benefits for women as early as age 62. Benefits received prior to age 65 were reduced to take account of the longer period over which they would be received. The 1961 amendments extended eligibility for reduced benefits to include men.

In its examination of the adequacy of Social Security protection for the aged and the disabled, the 1965 Advisory Council came to the conclusion "that cash benefits alone are not enough." In its report, the Council said that:

"Monthly cash benefits, if adequate, can meet regularly recurring expenses such as those for food, clothing and shelter, but [they] are not a practical way to meet the problem that the aged and disabled face in the high and unpredictable costs of health care, costs that may run into the thousands of dollars for some and amount to very little for others. Security in old age and during disability requires the combination of a cash benefit and insurance against a substantial part of the costs of expensive illness."

The Council found in part that, while health care expenditures for the aged were twice as high as those of younger people, the great majority of the aged were neither well-off nor had adequate health insurance. Further, they found that, by the 1960's, the inability of the aged to meet health care costs had become the single most important reason that older people applied for public assistance. Based on these findings, the Council recommended establishment of a program to provide, through a contributory social insurance mechanism, protection against the costs of hospital and related inpatient services for aged and disabled. In order to protect people who were already old, the Council recommended that hospital insurance protection be provided initially without regard to insured status that is, that people at or near retirement age be grand-fathered into the new program.

Even as the Council was meeting, the Congress was actively considering proposals to provide health insurance benefits. In 1965, the Congress passed "Medicare" legislation, which, while it essentially embodied the Advisory Council's recommendations, differed in two major respects. First, in addition to providing protection against hospital costs through a payroll tax financed hospital insurance (HI) program, the plan enacted also included a voluntary program to be financed through monthly premiums and Federal general revenues. This supplementary medical insurance (SMI) program was designed to meet the costs of physicians' services and other outpatient care. Second, only people aged 65 and over, rather than both the aged and disabled, would be eligible for Medicare. (A few years later, in 1972, Medicare protection was extended to people who had been receiving cash disability benefits for 24 months or more.)

With the advent of Medicare, the body of programs which we refer to today as "Social Security" was complete. Yet, while there have been no major additions to the system over the last 15 years or so, there has been continuing public and congressional reassessment of the ongoing role of Social Security in the Nation's income support structure. For example, the 1975 Advisory Council on Social Security firmly endorsed the basic purposes and principles of the program, noting that:

"The earnings-related OASDI program should remain the Nation's primary means of providing economic security in the event of retirement, death, or disability. It should be supplemented by effective private pensions, individual insurance, savings, and other investments and it should be undergirded by effective means-tested programs. Future changes in OASDI should conform to the fundamental principles of the program: universal compulsory coverage, earnings-related benefits paid without a test of need, and contributions toward the cost of the program from covered workers and employers."

With respect to the OASDI programs, legislative considerations over these years have focused on three fundamental issues:

  • Maintaining the value of benefits over time
  • Assuring the financial soundness of the system and
  • Structuring the disability program so as to maintain its responsiveness to the needs of the disabled while curbing the potential for abuse.

As noted earlier, the Congress acted to increase benefits from time to time during the 1950's and 1960's. Nevertheless, there was concern that during the intervals between these ad hoc benefit increases, inflation eroded the purchasing power of benefits. The 1971 Advisory Council examined this issue and recommended that Social Security benefits be adjusted automatically to keep pace with increases in prices. The Council said:

"An automatic adjustments system would, the Council believes, give to both present and future beneficiaries a greater sense of security than would exist if a benefit increase can take place only after an action by the Congress. Beneficiaries would be assured, by virtue of an explicit provision in the law, that the purchasing power of their benefits would not deteriorate because of inflation."

In order to assure that Social Security would provide a consistent level of protection to workers over time as earnings levels rose, and to restrain payroll tax rates as benefit levels increased, the Council further recommended that the contribution and benefit base be increased automatically to reflect earnings growth. In conjunction with these recommendations, the Council also recommended that actuarial cost estimates for the program be based on assumptions that earnings levels would rise over time.* The Council also reaffirmed the view of prior Councils that the program should be financed on a current-cost basis in the near term and advocated frank recognition of this policy in longer-range financial planning.

(* Before 1972, actuarial estimates of program costs over the long range were based on level cost assumptions--that is, it was assumed that wage and price levels, as well as benefit levels, would remain unchanged over the 75-year valuation period. As wages did in fact increase, surpluses accumulated that could be and were used to finance benefit increases.)

In 1972, the Congress approved legislation that established automatic cost-of-living adjustments (COLA's) in benefits based on price increases as measured by the Consumer Price Index and provided for automatically increasing the maximum amount of earnings covered under the system. Moreover, the payroll tax schedule adopted in 1972 reflected the 1971 Council's recommendations with respect to both the basis for 75-year cost estimates and current-cost financing. Soon after the automatic COLA provision took effect, it became evident that combining the automatic-indexing procedures with the existing benefit table resulted in a computation procedure that, because it took into account both wage and price increases, unduly increased benefits for workers who would retire in the future. This overcompensation resulted in cost projections which showed that the tax rates scheduled in the law would be inadequate to meet the long-range costs of the program.

Based on the recommendations of the 1975 Advisory Council, the Congress in 1977 addressed the problems by establishing a new "decoupled" benefit-computation formula for workers becoming newly eligible or dying after 1978. Under the new formula, which replaced the benefit table in the law, initial benefits are increased to reflect increases in average wages before workers reach retirement age, and the purchasing power of benefits is guaranteed after retirement through cost-of-living increases.

At the time that the 1977 amendments were enacted, it was thought that, due to the lower long-range costs resulting from the new benefit formula, changes the Congress made in the tax rate schedule would be adequate to finance benefit payments well into the next century. However, over the next few years, the Nation experienced a period of spiraling inflation and high unemployment along with low or negative real wage growth. These worse-than-expected economic conditions created a two-pronged drain on Social Security in the short term.

  • Benefit expenditures were pushed up rapidly by high inflation, while payroll taxes went up more slowly because of the relatively slower growth in wages and
  • High unemployment reduced payroll taxes.

In addition, new long-range projections showed that the decline in the birth rate and the likelihood of increased life expectancy would both have negative effects on Social Security in the 21st century, fewer workers would be paying taxes and retirees would be receiving benefits longer.

Due to these problems, it soon became clear that without significant further congressional action, the OASI Trust Fund would be unable to pay benefits on time by some point in the 1980's. Thus, in December 1981, President Reagan announced the formation of the National Commission on Social Security Reform (NCSSR) "to work with the President and the Congress to reach two specific goals: propose realistic, long-term reform to put social security back on a sound financial footing and forge a working bipartisan consensus so that the necessary reforms will be passed into law."

The NCSSR reported on January 20, 1983. Based on the recommendations of the NCSSR, the Congress enacted the so-called "bipartisan compromise" 1983 amendments. This package of provisions was designed to resolve the financing crisis by sharing the burden among affected groups, present and future. Among the major provisions of the 1983 legislation that became effective in the near term were:

  • Advances in tax rate increases already scheduled in the law for employees and employers
  • Permanent increases in self-employment tax rates
  • Delays in the effective date of automatic COLA's in benefits from June to December of each year and
  • Inclusion of up to half of benefits in taxable income for certain high-income beneficiaries (and appropriation of the resulting revenues to the trust funds).

In the long range, in recognition of improvements in longevity, the 1983 amendments provided for gradually increasing the age of eligibility for unreduced retirement benefits. Workers born after 1937 will be the first to be affected by this change the provision will be fully effective for workers born after 1959, for whom unreduced benefits will be available at age 67. Benefits will continue to be available at age 62, but the reduction in benefits at age 62 will increase as the age of eligibility for unreduced benefits increases.

As a result of enactment of the 1983 legislation, OASDI benefits can be paid on time in the short run and well into the next century on the basis of even the most pessimistic economic and demographic assumptions used by the Social Security Trustees in making projections. During the 1990's, current projections show, substantial excesses of income over outgo will replenish program reserves and build up substantial trust funds. After the turn of the century, program costs will rise substantially as the baby boom generation reaches retirement age, and use of trust fund assets will be necessary.

With the enactment of the 1983 amendments, which assured the soundness of the Social Security system both through the 1980's and well into the 21st century, the Congress once again reaffirmed its commitment to the use of the social insurance mechanism as the Nation's first line of defense against dependency in old age, disability, or upon the death of a worker.

During the past decade and a half, the disability insurance program has also undergone substantial change. During the early 1970's, the disability insurance (DI) program began to experience tremendous growth. As the decade unfolded, it became clear that continuing rapid growth in the DI program was beginning to pose a serious threat to the DI Trust Fund. Studies aimed at discovering the causes of the unexpected growth in the disability program suggested that (1) the beneficiary rolls included many ineligibles, and (2) the program structure tended to discourage people who might be able to return to work from doing so.

The Social Security Disability Amendments of 1980 included a limit on monthly family disability benefits, additional work incentive provisions, and administrative improvements, including mandatory reviews, at least once every 3 years, of the continuing eligibility of disabled beneficiaries whose disabilities are not necessarily permanent. On the basis of these amendments, the financial solvency of the DI Trust Fund was restored, and, in fact, the trust fund was projected to increase rapidly after 1981.

Shortly after implementation of the 1980 amendments, however, the periodic review provision began to be criticized by the public and Congress. Although, beginning in 1982, the Social Security Administration and the Department of Health and Human Services made many administrative changes to deal with these criticisms, public and congressional attention remained fixed on the DI program, as advocacy groups for the disabled petitioned Congress for legislative relief. Throughout 1982 and 1983, amidst great controversy, the Congress considered a variety of reforms to mitigate the effects of the periodic review process.

These efforts culminated in the enactment of the Social Security Disability Benefits Reform Act of 1984. The major provisions are mandatory application of a medical improvement standard in continuing disability reviews, continuation of disability benefit payments during appeal of termination decisions, and a moratorium on reviews of cases involving mental impairments pending development of revised review criteria.

Today, 37 million people get Social Security benefits of more than $15 billion a month OASDI benefits this year will total $188 billion. In 1985, about 122 million people will work in employment covered under Social Security, which applies today to 95 percent of all jobs in our economy.

As a Nation, we can take particular pride in having made the Social Security program the most successful domestic program in our history. Over the years, Social Security has been a vital contributor to the security of virtually all Americans. Today, 50 years after its inception, it remains the foundation of well-being for us in our later years or if we are disabled and for our families if we die before retirement.


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Komentari:

  1. Tau

    It was specially registered at a forum to tell to you thanks for council. How I can thank you?

  2. Alden

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  3. Payton

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  4. Kyrk

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  5. Tagal

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