General Bragg - Povijest

General Bragg - Povijest


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General Bragg

General Braxton Bragg. rođen je 1817. godine u Warrentownu, NC, a diplomirao je na West Pointu 1837. Nakon akcije u ratu Seminole, služio je odredište u Meksičkom ratu, osobito u Buena Visti 3. veljače 1847. kada je njegovo poljsko topništvo probilo Meksički napad. Dao je ostavku 1836. i postao vlasnik plantaže u Louisiani sve dok 23. veljače 1861. nije zamolio brigadnog generala u vojsci Konfederacijskih država. Pomagao je generalu Johnstonu u reorganizaciji njegove vojske, unaprijeđen je u generala za hrabrost u Shilohu; i smijenio generala Beauregarda za zapovjednika vojske Tennesseeja 27. lipnja 1862. Nakon što je vidio akcije u Perryvilleu, Stone Riveru, Chickamaugi i Chattanoogi, general Johnston ga je razriješio 2. prosinca 1863. Kao vojni savjetnik Jeffersona Davisa zarobljen je sa Predsjednik svibnja 1865. Nakon rata radio je kao građevinski inženjer do svoje smrti u Galvestonu 27. rujna 1876.

(SStr: t. 1.043, 1. 208 ', b. 32'8 ", dph. 16' dr. 12 ':
s. 10 k., A. 1 30-pdr., 1 32-pdr., 1 12-pdr .;

General Bragg, izvorno riječni parobrod Meksiko vosak izgrađen u New Yorku 1831. U vlasništvu Southern Steamship Co., bila je impresionirana službom Konfederacije kao general CSS -a Bragg. U New Orleansu 13. siječnja 1862. (Zarobila ju je Zapadna flotila Unije u zarukama u blizini Memphisa, Tenn., 6. lipnja 1862., te je 30. rujna 1862. premještena u Ratno odjeljenje. Njezin prvi zapovjednik bio je to. Joshua Bishop.

General Bragg opremljen je u Kairu, Illinois, pri odlasku
Srpnja 1862. za Helenu, Ark. Otplovila je 16. kolovoza 1862. kao dio pratnje do parobroda Iatan koji je prevozio 300 vojnika do ušća Yazooa za izviđanje konfederacijskih baterija i gerilskih stranaka. Sljedećih 13 mjeseci, osim u razdobljima popravaka u Memphisu, patrolirala je rijekom od Helene do ušća rijeke Yazoo, gdje se čuvala od kretanja Konfederacije prema Vicksburgu.

Padom Vicksburga u srpnju 1863., general Bragg ostao je u blizini do njezina odlaska 13. prosinca, za svoju novu postaju na ušću Crvene rijeke. Tijekom proljeća 1864. bila joj je dužnost čuvati ušće rijeke u znak podrške zajedničkoj ekspediciji protiv Shreveporta na Crvenom. Ponovno je počela patrolirati rijekom, a 15. lipnja angažirala je bateriju Konfederacije s Naiadom u blizini Tunica Benda, La. Neko vrijeme brodovi su proživjeli najgore akcije usred tuče i mušketi, ali su na kraju odvezli Konfederate uz pomoć iz Winnebaga. General Bragg bio je onemogućen u akciji.

Ostatak karijere generala Braggsa proveo je patrolirajući Mississippijem od ušća Crvene rijeke do Miss Natcheza. Rijetko je krstarila čak do juga do Baton Rougea i New Orleansa. Brod se vratio u Mound City, III., 2. srpnja 1865., a stavljen je izvan pogona u Kairu 24. srpnja 1965. Prodana 1. rujna 1865, prepravljena je u Meksiku.


General Bragg - Povijest

Dva vjerojatna podrijetla Bragg prezimena naveli su istraživači Charles Guarino i Albert Seddons, koji su prije mnogo godina distribuirali sindikalnu novinsku kolumnu o obiteljskim imenima i heraldici. U kolumni iz 1967. predložili su da je jedno moguće podrijetlo imena Bragg riječ za opisivanje karaktera osobe, a drugo moguće podrijetlo je izmišljena izvedenica iz imena skandinavskog boga.

U srednjoengleskom rječniku bila je riječ napisana & ldquobragge & rdquo, što je značilo živahno ili snažno. Normanska riječ & ldquobraggi & rdquo opisivala je čovjeka velikog postignuća, heroja. Kad službenik se susreo sa zadatkom da u službene evidencije unese imena dviju osoba koje nose isto osobno ime, često je dodavao takvu opisnu riječ kako bi razlikovao to dvoje. Tako je odlukom jednog gradskog činovnika nastalo Bragg ime.

Nordežani — Danci i Skandinavci — ostavili su veliki utjecaj na britansko otočje i proces imenovanja. Njihov bog mudrosti i rječitosti zvao se Bragi. Na skandinavskim žrtvenim gozbama rogovi posvećeni Bragi koristili su se kao čaša za piće od strane gostiju koji su se zavjetovali da će učiniti neko dobro djelo vrijedno biti ovjekovječeno u stihovima.

Ime Bragi počašćeno je kao osobna identifikacija, a na kraju se razvilo u prezime. Bragg je rezultat u Engleskoj.

U heraldici je Braggov grb prikazan kao srebrna podloga sa zelenim ševronom okruženom s tri crvena bika.

Jedan od prvih zapisa o Braggovom imenu napravljen je 1243. godine kada je Walter Bragge, posjednik, naveden u Assize of Sommerset. Henry Brag pojavljuje se 1275. godine u Wiltshireu.

Vjeruje se da je prvi Bragg koji je otputovao u Ameriku bio Thomas Bragg, koji je pratio kapetana Christophera Newporta na putovanju 1610. godine u Virginiju, noseći engleske emigrante koji su osnovali novo naselje James Town. Thomas je bio na glasu kao jedan od nekoliko braće Bragg koji su migrirali iz Engleske početkom 17. stoljeća na predstraže u kolonijalnoj Sjevernoj Americi. uključujući Massachusetts, Maine i Novu Škotsku.

Thomas, rođen u Engleskoj oko 1579., bio je 8G-djed autora ovog izvještaja. Iako autoru nisu poznati pisani zapisi o braku, mnogi vjeruju da je suprug Thomas Bragg & rsquos bio Mary (Molly) Newport, kći kapetana Newporta.

Dostignuća i javne ličnosti

U Americi je obitelj iz 19. stoljeća na čelu s Thomasom Braggom iz Warrentona u Sjevernoj Karolini vjerojatno najpoznatija Bragg obitelj s ove strane Atlantika. Drugi sin obitelji, također po imenu Thomas Bragg (1810.-1872.), Imao je karijeru u javnoj službi kao zakonodavac savezne države Sjeverne Karoline, odvjetnik tužitelja, guverner Sjeverne Karoline (1855.-59.) I američki senator. Kad se Sjeverna Karolina odvojila od Unije na početku građanskog rata u SAD -u, Thomas Bragg je napustio Senat i kasnije je imenovan državnim tužiteljem Konfederativnih država Amerike. Poslije rata imao je privatnu advokatsku praksu.

Četvrti sin obitelji & rsquos, Braxton T. Bragg (1817.-1876.), Pohađao je Američku vojnu akademiju u West Pointu u New Yorku i zauzeo peto mjesto među 50 diplomanata u klasi 1837. Istaknuo se. sam kao kapetan topništva u Meksičkom ratu i povukao se iz vojske kao potpukovnik 1856. kako bi postao plantažer šećera u Louisiani. Vratio se u uniformu 1861. godine kao pukovnik milicije u Louisiani kada je izbio građanski rat, te je napredovao u zapovjedništvo središnjih armija Konfederacije kao generalni časnik Konfederativnih država Amerike. General Bragg imao je mješoviti uspjeh kao zapovjednik na terenu, postigavši ​​neke signalne trijumfe, ali i pretrpjevši neke neslavne poraze. Bio je s predsjednikom CSA -e Jeffersonom Davisom kada su Davisa zarobile snage Unije nakon rata. Plantaža Braxton Bragg & rsquos spaljena je tijekom rata i prisvojena od strane stranaca kroz politiku obnove nakon postavljanja tepiha kada je sukob završio. Braxton je završio svoj život radeći za druge kao građevinski inženjer u Louisiani, Alabami i Teksasu.

Pisac i reporter Rick Bragg (rođen 26. srpnja 1959.) vjerojatno je najpoznatiji američki suvremenik s prezimenom Bragg. Rođen je i odrastao u sjeveroistočnoj Alabami i radio je za nekoliko novina. Pridružio se New York Timesu 1994. Rick Bragg napisao je mnoge priče NYT-a o zločinima visokog ranga, uključujući domaće terorističko bombardiranje savezne zgrade u Oklahoma Cityju, pucnjavu u školskom dvorištu u Jonesborou u Arkansasu i zloglasno ubojstvo njezine djece od strane Susan LV Smith u Južnoj Karolini. Kao šef ureda za Times u Miamiju, Rick Bragg pratio je napeto i nestabilno političko povlačenje iz 2000. godine koje uključuje skrbništvo nad kubanskim dječakom Elianom Gonzalezom. Bragg & rsquos rad osvojio mu je 1996. Pulitzerovu nagradu za igrano pisanje za svoje & ldquoelegantno napisane priče o suvremenoj Americi. & Rdquo Rick Bragg vjerojatno je nadaleko poznatiji po svojim knjigama o svojoj obitelji. Njegovo Svuda osim Shoutina & rsquo i Ava & rsquos Čovjek obje su dospjele na liste bestselera. Dao je ostavku na NYT 2003. nakon što je nakratko suspendiran zbog pisanja igrane priče koja je opsežno koristila bilješke i izvještaje o radu neplaćenog slobodnjaka bez pripisivanja, priznanja ili objašnjenja. Ta praksa nije bila neuobičajena u NYT -u i drugim novinama, a incident s Rickom Braggom možda nije postao javno poznat, osim što se dogodio u razdoblju kada je vjerodostojnost NYT -a i rsquosa bila pod oblakom zbog teškog slučaja lažnog izvještavanja drugog autora , Jayson Blair — slučaj koji je na kraju dvojicu visokih urednika koštao posla.

U Engleskoj je najcjenjeniji i najpoznatiji Bragg nedvojbeno pisac, radiotelevizija, povjesničar i zagovornik umjetnosti Lord Melvyn Bragg. Rođen je 6. listopada 1939. od roditelja radničke klase na krajnjem sjeveru Engleske, samo nekoliko kilometara od granice sa Škotskom, u Carlisleu u okrugu Cumbria. On je počeo svoju karijeru na BBC -u 1961. Bio je pisac, urednik i voditelj Sajam South Bank za London Weekend Television od 1978. do završetka prikazivanja umjetničke izložbe 2010. Princ Charles nazvao je emisiju & ldquo jednim od najvažnijih svjetionika umjetnosti u ovoj zemlji koja je imala sreću uživati ​​& rdquo, a većinu Britanaca zbunio je otkaz popularne emisije. Godišnja dodjela nagrada South Bank Awards, britanski ekvivalent američkih Oscara, Emmyja i Grammyja upakiranih u jedno, održana je na životu, a voditelj joj je Melvyn Bragg. Bragg također ostaje eruditirani voditelj programa BBC Radio 4 U naše vrijeme, tjednu intelektualnu raspravu o povijesnim ličnostima, filozofiji, kulturi i događajima koja je dostupna kao podcast ili online stream. Bragg također piše tjedni bilten o emisiji, koji se povremeno čita kao dnevnik njegovih dolazaka i odlazaka u svakodnevni vrtlog londonskog javnog života. Autor je više od desetak romana i otprilike isto toliko naučnih djela, uključujući biografije i djela o jeziku i književnosti. On je i scenarist. Među mnogim svojim javnim ulogama, Melvyn Bragg je kancelar Sveučilišta Leeds (od 1999.), predsjednik Nacionalne kampanje za umjetnost (od 1986.) i guverner Londonske škole ekonomije (od 1997.). Obrazovan na Wadham Collegeu u Oxfordu, gdje je čitao modernu povijest, Bragg je do ovog spisa (2010.) prikupio 13 počasnih doktorata. Glavni pristaša britanske i rsquos Laburističke stranke, Melvyn Bragg imenovan je u Dom lordova kao kolega iz radnog vijeka (barun Bragg iz Wigtona) 1998. Novinar Nick Barratt iz londonskog Telegrapha napisao je priču o genealogiji Melvyna Bragga za uključivanje u novinsku seriju "Obiteljski detektiv". Članak od 11. kolovoza 2007. postavljen je ovdje na web stranicu The Telegraph & rsquos.

Glazbenik Billy Bragg još je jedan Englez poznat s obje strane Atlantika. Rođen je kao Stephen William Bragg 20. prosinca 1957. u radničkoj obitelji u istočnom Londonu. On je alternativa rock glazbenik koji svira i pjeva narodnu glazbu, punk rock i pjesme političkog protesta i društvene svijesti. Komercijalnu glazbenu karijeru započeo je 1977. Snimio je više desetaka glazbenih albuma. Billy Bragg snažan je pobornik mnogih progresivnih i ljevičarskih napora. Bragg je bio aktivni podupirač radnih razloga i kandidat za Laburističku stranku u Velikoj Britaniji, a bio je i otvoreni protivnik fašizma, rasizma, netrpeljivosti, seksizma i homofobije. Zagovornik je višerasnog društva u Britaniji. koji je stav izazvao oštre kritike desničarskih ekstremističkih skupina. Pisac Nick Barratt napisao je "Obiteljski detektiv" o porijeklu Billyja Bragga u The Telegraphu u ožujku 2007. Barrattova priča nalazi se na web stranici The Telegrapha.

Jedini Braggs koji su dobili Nobelovu nagradu bili su tim oca i sina Sir Williama Henryja Bragga (1862-1942) i Sir Williama Lawrencea Bragga (1890-1971). Dobili su nagradu 1915. za svoja istraživanja u fizici. 1912-14. Braggs je osnovao novu granu znanosti od velike važnosti razvijanjem uporabe X-zraka za analizu atomske strukture kristala. Ideju je prvi put objavio i istražio sin William Lawrence Bragg kada je imao samo 22 godine. On je i dalje najmlađi dobitnik Nobelove nagrade. I otac i sin bili su Englezi, ali sin je rođen u Australiji kad mu je otac bio profesor matematike i fizike na Sveučilištu u Adelaideu. Tijekom Prvog svjetskog rata William Henry Bragg vodio je britansko istraživanje o otkrivanju i mjerenju podvodnih zvukova za lociranje podmornica. Kao priznanje za ovaj rad, kao i za njegovu znanstvenu eminenciju, William Henry Bragg odlikovan je vitezom 1920. od strane kralja Georgea V. Pošto je bio član Kraljevskog društva od 1907., izabran je za predsjednika Društva 1935. Imao je 16 počasnih doktorirao u vrijeme svoje smrti. Williama Lawrencea Bragga, sina, kralj George VI 1941. godine odlikovao je vitezom. Kasnije se usredotočio na primjenu fizike za proučavanje strukture proteina i rješavanje bioloških misterija. Kao direktor Cambridge & rsquos Cavendish Laboratorija, podržao je rad Watsona, Cricka i Wilkinsa u njihovom monumentalnom otkriću strukture DNK 1953. godine.

U trgovačkom području, ime Bragg koje najčešće vide američki potrošači je na proizvodima tvrtke za zdravu hranu pod nazivom Bragg Live Food Products, sa sjedištem u Santa Barbari u Kaliforniji. Najpoznatiji proizvod tvrtke je organski jabučni ocat koji prodaju nezavisne i lančane trgovine, maloprodaje zdrave hrane i trgovine dodacima prehrani. Tvrtku je osnovao Paul Chappius Bragg (rođen 6. veljače 1895. u Batesvilleu, Indiana). Paul C. Bragg bio je poduzetnik čija ga je želja za samopromocijom u holivudskom stilu dovela do izmišljanja priča o njegovom životu i postignućima. Na primjer, 1920 -ih i 1930 -ih, kao putujući predavač o zdravim stilovima života i evanđelist za vlastite metode, Paul C. Bragg je 14 godina pridodao vlastitoj dobi u očitom nastojanju da pretjera u dobrobiti svog zdravstvenog režima. Lažno je tvrdio da je potomak generala Braxtona Bragga (vidi gore), iako rodoslovni zapisi pokazuju da general Bragg i njegova supruga nisu imali djece. Možda postoji istina u nekim zdravstvenim učenjima ovog čovjeka koji se nazvao stručnjakom za proširenje & ldquolife & rdquo, ali detalji izmišljotina i hiperbole Paula C. Bragga daju nam razlog za skepticizam. Do danas, promocija tvrtke Bragg & rsquos uvelike se oslanja na isticanje poznatih osoba. Bragg je tvrdio da je svoje tehnike dobrog zdravlja naučio dok se kao mladić liječio od tuberkuloze u švicarskoj klinici. Tvrdio je da se borio na Olimpijskim igrama 1908. i 1912., borio se u svim većim bitkama Prvog svjetskog rata, igrao tenis s Teddyjem Rooseveltom i poučavao TR & rsquos sinove boksu, a tvrdio je da je osnovao prvu američku trgovinu zdrave hrane u Los Angelesu godine. 1912. Istraživači su razotkrili ove velike priče pregledavajući povijesne zapise, uključujući popise stanovništva, zapise o socijalnom osiguranju, useljavanje i selektivnu službu, kao i zapise u okrugu Ripley, Indiana, gdje je rođen. Paul C. Bragg umro je 1976. u 81. godini, ali tvrdi da ima 95. Lice Bragg Live Food Products danas je Patricia Bragg, koja se i dalje drži fikcije da je kći Paul C. Bragg & rsquos. Zapravo, rođena je 1929. u Oaklandu (okrug Alameda) u Kaliforniji, Patricia Pendleton, i bila je bivša snaha Paul & rsquos. Patricia je bila udana za sina Paul & rsquosa, Roberta E., od kojeg se razvela 1956. nakon što ju je Robert optužio za skandal s njegovim ocem.


Braxton Bragg

Braxton Bragg zapovijedao je Konfederacijskom vojskom Tennesseeja u bitci za Chickamaugu i bitkama za Chattanoogu. Bio je diplomac West Pointa (klasa 1837.), veteran rata seminola, istaknuti veteran tijekom meksičko-američkog rata i dugogodišnji časnik vojske Sjedinjenih Država. Bragg je dao otkaz u vojsci 1856. godine i nadzirao je svoju plantažu u Louisiani kad je rat počeo.

Godine 1861. imenovan je i potvrđen kao brigadni general u Privremenoj vojsci Konfederacijskih država te je postavljen za zapovjednika obrane duž obale Zaljeva (od Pensacole, Florida, do Mobilea, Alabama). Bragg je u rujnu 1861. promaknut u general bojnika i pomagao generalu Albertu S. Johnstonu u Shilohu u travnju 1862. Ubrzo nakon bitke, uzdignut je u čin generala, a u lipnju je zamijenio generala P.G.T. Beauregard kao zapovjednik vojske Mississippija, kasnije preimenovane u Armiju Tennesseeja. On je poveo ovu vojsku u Kentucky, gdje je doživio poraz u bitci kod Perryvillea u listopadu 1862. Sljedeća velika bitka vodila se protiv general -bojnika Williama S. Rosecransa uz obale rijeke Stones, Tennessee (31. prosinca 1862. i 2. siječnja) , 1863.). Nakon što je istisnut iz Srednjeg Tennesseeja i Chattanooge, Bragg je pobijedio Rosecrans u bitci za Chickamaugu, borio se 18., 19. rujna & amp. 20. 1863. Zatim je opsjedao vojsku Unije u Chattanoogi sve do studenog, kada su snage pod zapovjedništvom generala US Granta natjerao ga da se povuče u Georgiju. On je dao ostavku na svoje zapovjedništvo, a Joseph E. Johnston preuzeo je njegovo mjesto zapovjednika vojske Tennesseeja. Predsjednik Jefferson Davis pozvao je Bragga u Richmond gdje je stavljen pod predsjednikovo vodstvo "s vođenjem vojnih operacija u vojskama Konfederacije". Na kraju rata Bragg se vratio natrag na teren, vidjevši daljnju službu u Sjevernoj Karolini.

Warner, Ezra J. Generali u sivoj boji: Životi zapovjednika Konfederacije. Baton Rouge: LSU Press, 2006. (zbornik).


Braxton Bragg

U redu, moj zadnji post odnosio se na Braxtona Bragga i njegovu invaziju na Kentucky - sad moram iznijeti nepopularno mišljenje. Bragg nije bio strašan general - bio je loš general, reći ću vam to, i bio je daleko od najboljeg. Međutim, jedva da je pao na sindikalne zamke, spriječio je kampanju Chattanoogu i invaziju na Georgiju ušavši na stražnja vrata i napavši Kentucky s inferiornom silom - vratio je više od 2000 vagona i zadržao svoju vojsku dok je uništavao cijeli sindikalni zbor Perryville (sa samo 17.000 ljudi!). Sve dok ga nije iskoristio Chickamaugu i poraz na Misionarskom grebenu, ne bih ga smatrao katastrofom. Moje skromno mišljenje, možda griješim.

Ne bi Bragga smatrali lošim generalom, ali drugim najboljim zapovjednikom pobunjeničke vojske. Ne mogu se sjetiti ničega što nadilazi sjajan prelazak iz Tupela u Chattanoogu. Taj potez, zajedno s onim što smatram uspješnom invazijom na Kentucky, spašava Chattanoogu i Donji jug više od godinu dana. Bragg iz Kentuckyja donosi priličnu količinu stvari, 35 topova, 8000 grla goveda i dobrih 50.000 barela svinjetine.

Murfreesboro je sjajna borba, najbolje je reći Bragg 's. Ne mogu se prisjetiti bilo koje druge velike bitke u kojoj je federalna linija bila savijena za 90 stupnjeva. Naravno, ono što pretpostavljam većini pada na pamet kad dođu ovdje & quotBattle of Murfreesboro & quot; bio bi manji i neuspješan napad 2. siječnja, za koji sam čuo da je označen kao Bragg koji pokušava ubiti Breckinridge 's Division zbog nekog navodnog prijestupa autor Breckinridge. Sve što je Bragg želio bilo je da Breckinridge zauzme neko visoko mjesto kako ga federalno topništvo ne bi moglo zauzeti, ali Breckinridge nastavlja ići dalje, a zatim se usitni, i nekako je za to kriv#Bragg '.

Tullahoma je iskreno samo tužan. Bragg je fizički i psihički potrošio, poslao je pet brigada pješaštva i dvije brigade konjanika u Johnston, Wheeler je loš, Forrest je loš, a Polk i Hardee ne brinu se za Braggove narudžbe.

Zatim tu su Chickamauga i "neuspjeh iskorištavanja" o kojima tako često čujem. Bragg -ovi su samo pretrpjeli više od toga 18,000 žrtava, a on i što bi trebao? Odmah zanemariti njegove ranjenike, savezne ranjenike, savezne zarobiti i odmah juriti? Bragg efektivno tjera vojsku Cumberlanda na izgladnjivanje mjesec -dva dana prije nego što savez ponovo otvori opskrbnu liniju jer Longstreet od sebe pravi novi Polk.

Čak i ja, kao predani Braggov pristaša, ne mogu zaista opravdati Missionary Ridge. Braggov nedostatak utoraka je nekarakterističan i nije dobar, ali iako ga mogu kriviti za zakašnjelu gradnju, ne mogu ga kriviti za lošu gradnju jer su za to krivi njegov glavni inženjer i Breckinridge.

Pa da, to je moje sažeto mišljenje o Braggu kao zapovjedniku vojske Mississippija/vojske Tennesseeja.


Sadržaj

Bragg je rođen u Unadilli u New Yorku, sin Margarette (Kohl) i Joela B. Bragga. [1] [2] Bragg je kao dijete pohađao područne škole. Zatim je pohađao lokalnu akademiju i Ženevski koledž (danas Hobart College) u Ženevi, New York, [1] gdje je bio jedan od članova povelje Kappa Alpha Society. Napustio je fakultet prije nego što je diplomirao 1847. godine i studirao pravo u uredima suca Charlesa C. Noblea. Primljen je u advokatsku komoru New York State 1848., a radio je kao mlađi partner sa sucem Nobleom do 1850. [2]

Godine 1850. otputovao je na zapad u obilazak prospekta u Wisconsin, namjeravajući se smjestiti u blizini Green Baya. Na cesti između Chicaga i Green Baya prepoznao je ime bivšeg školskog druga na natpisu u Fond du Lac u Wisconsinu i odlučio se tamo nastaniti. [2]

Bragg se brzo istaknuo u Fond du Lac, povezujući se s Demokratskom strankom. Izabran je za okružnog tužitelja Fond du Lac 1853. godine i bio je izaslanik Demokratske nacionalne konvencije 1860. u Charlestonu u Južnoj Karolini, koja je nominirala Stephena A. Douglasa i Herschela V. Johnsona za predsjednika i potpredsjednika Sjedinjenih Država. [1] [2]

Kad je stigla vijest o napadu na Fort Sumter, Bragg je bio uključen u slučaj u Oshkosh, Wisconsin, gdje je djelovao kao branitelj žene koja je optužena za ubojstvo. [2] Zatražio je stanku i odmah se vratio u Fond du Lac. Te se noći obratio skupštini u gradu i podignuta je cijela četa "tromjesečnih" volontera. Dok se Bragg dogovarao oko svojih osobnih poslova, stigao je poziv da se još jedan volonter prijavi na trogodišnju službu. Bragg je regrutirao drugu tvrtku i izabran je za njihovog kapetana. Tvrtka se nazivala "Bragg's Rifles" i postala bi satnija E 6. dobrovoljačke pješačke pukovnije Wisconsin. [1]

6. Wisconsin organiziran je u kampu Randall u Madisonu u Wisconsinu, a u službu je stupio 16. srpnja 1861. pod vodstvom pukovnika Lysandera Cutlera. [3]: 443 Naređeno im je da krenu u Washington, DC, na službu u istočno kazalište rata. Jednom u Washingtonu bili su organizirani u brigadu generala Rufusa Kinga. Ubrzo su im se pridružile 2. pukovnije Wisconsin, 7. Wisconsin i 19. Indiana, u onome što će postati poznato kao Željezna brigada vojske Potomaca. [3]: 444 Od tog trenutka do kraja rata, Bragg je sudjelovao u gotovo svakoj bitci Željezne brigade. [4]

Washington (jesen 1861. - proljeće 1862.) Edit

6. Wisconsin proveo je jesen 1861. i proljeće 1862. na dužnostima u blizini Washingtona, gradeći utvrde i bušeći u pripremi za borbu. [3]: 444 Tijekom tog vremena, Bragg je promaknut u bojnika, 17. rujna 1861. godine, a zatim u potpukovnika, 21. lipnja 1862. godine, nakon što je potpukovnik Benjamin Sweet postao pukovnik nove 21. dobrovoljačke pješačke pukovnije Wisconsin . [4] [5]

Sjeverna Virdžinija (ljeto 1862.) Uredi

U travnju 1862. Željezna brigada marširala je na jug i utaborila se u Falmouthu u Virginiji, na rijeci Rappahannock, preko puta Fredericksburga u Virginiji, gdje su ostali kroz veći dio kampanje na poluotoku. [6]: 40 U lipnju su nakratko stavljeni u stanje pripravnosti kako bi se pripremili za pojačanje generala Georgea B. McClellana, ali na kraju nisu sudjelovali. [3]: 445

U srpnju, nakon što je general John Pope zamijenio McClellana na sveukupnom zapovjedništvu Vojske Unije, Željezna brigada je dodijeljena da sudjeluje u napadima protiv infrastrukture i logistike Konfederacije južno od Rappahannocka. [6]: 52 Najvažniji je napad na Frederickovu dvoranu u prvom tjednu kolovoza s namjerom da se presiječe središnja željeznička pruga Virginia. Dio 6. Wisconsina, uključujući potpukovnika Bragga, odvojio se od brigade i poslao na brzi marš do rijeke North Anna, gdje su otkrili da se na njihovom boku nalaze velike snage Konfederacije. Pozvano je vijeće časnika kako bi raspravili trebaju li napustiti raciju zbog opasnosti da budu odsječeni i zarobljeni. Bragg, zajedno s bojnikom Rufusom Dawesom i potpukovnikom Hughom Judsonom Kilpatrickom, bili su uporni da se napad treba nastaviti. [6]: 54 [napomena 1] Misija je u konačnici bila uspješna jer su dvije milje pruge središnje željezničke pruge Virginia uništene, a napadači Unije sigurno su se vratili u Falmouth. [6]: 55 [napomena 2]

Druga trka bikova (kolovoz 1862.) Uredi

Željezna brigada stigla je na planinu Cedar u Virginiji, dva dana nakon tamošnje bitke. [3]: 445 Sudjelovali su u sahranjivanju mrtvih i sudjelovali u okršaju, koji je režirao pukovnik Bragg, povezan s prvom bitkom na stanici Rappahannock uz novu obrambenu liniju na rijeci Rappahannock. [6]: 57 [napomena 3] [3]: 446

Nakon što je Stonewall Jackson uspješno manevrirao oko krila vojske Unije, dobiveno je naređenje da se vrati u Centerville, Virginia, u pokušaju da opkoli Jacksonov korpus. Uvečer 28. kolovoza, dok je s još tri brigade marširao sjeveroistočno na Warrenton Turnkpike, Željezna brigada naišla je na Jacksonov korpus u blizini Gainesvillea u Virginiji. [3]: 446 General Irvin McDowell, koji je zapovijedao njihovom divizijom, bio je uvjeren da Konfederacije predstavljaju beznačajnu silu, te je naredio brigadama da nastave marš prema Centervilleu. Međutim, kada su Konfederati otvorili topovsku vatru, general John Gibbon naredio je Željeznoj brigadi da napadne neprijatelja i pokuša zauzeti topništvo. Uslijedila je teška bitka kada se Željezna brigada suočila s kombiniranim napadom pet brigada Stonewall Jacksonovog korpusa. Tijekom bitke pukovnik Cutler bio je teško ranjen. [6]: 62 [bilješka 4] Potpukovnik Bragg preuzeo je zapovjedništvo nad 6. Wisconsinom i ostat će zapovjednik pukovnije veći dio sljedeće dvije godine. [4] Bragg i 6. Wisconsin držali su desni kraj linije protiv brigada Isaaca R. Trimblea i Alexandera Lawtona. [6]: 66

Borbe u Gainesvilleu u povijesnim se dokumentima često nazivaju "bitka za Gainesville" i predstavljale su prvi dan borbi u drugoj bitci za Bull Run. [3]: 446 [6]: 60 Unatoč tome što ih je nadmašilo više od 3 prema 1, brigada se zadržala i borbe su neodlučno završile oko ponoći. Tu se prvi put u njihovoj jedinici primijenio nadimak "Željezna brigada". [3]: 447 [napomena 5]

Bragg i Željezna brigada odmarali su se i ostali u pričuvi tijekom drugog dana bitke, ali su se pridružili borbama trećeg dana, 30. kolovoza 1862., u znak potpore V korpusa Fitza Johna Portera i njihovom nesretnom frontalnom napadu na Jacksonov položaj . Kako je napad posustao, a masivni bočni napad Konfederacije počeo se ostvarivati, Bragg je držao svoju pukovniju u redu i rasporedio okršaje kako bi usporio neprijateljski napad. [6]: 71 Kako je vojska Unije nazadovala, Braggu je naređeno da organizira 6. Wisconsin koji će djelovati kao stražar. [6]: 72 [napomena 6] Šesti Wisconsin se posljednji povukao, marširao je na urednom povlačenju gotovo milju pred punim vidom obje suprotstavljene vojske. [6]: 73 [bilješka 7]

Dok se vojska Unije povlačila s terena u noći 30. kolovoza, general Philip Kearny naredio je Željeznoj brigadi da djeluje kao pozadina vojske. [6]: 75 [3]: 448 Bragg i potpukovnik Lucius Fairchild - koji je zapovijedao konsolidiranim 2. i 7. Wisconsinom - upravljat će akcijom, postavljajući pikete i lažnu logorsku vatru kako bi prevarili neprijatelja. [6]: 75

Maryland i Antietam (rujan 1862.) Edit

Nakon neuspjeha Papine kampanje, general McClellan vraćen je na mjesto zapovjednika vojske Unije. [6]: 76 General Robert E. Lee preuzeo je inicijativu i napao Maryland. [3]: 450 Željezna brigada, sada označena kao 4. brigada, 1. divizija, u I korpusu Josepha Hookera, [3]: 450 [6]: 78 pridružila se Uniji u potrazi za Leejem u Marylandu i naišla na njegovu vojsku na South Mountain -u, južno od Hagerstowna, Maryland. [3]: 450

U bitci za South Mountain, 14. rujna 1862., Željezna brigada dobila je posebne upute da nastavi nacionalnom cestom i angažira brigadu Alfreda H. Colquitta na Turner's Gapu. [6]: 80 Pukovnik Bragg zapovijedao je 6. Wisconsinom štiteći desni bok napada, [3]: 451 [bilješka 8] u dobrom redu manevrira svojom pukovnijom po teškim terenima, a zatim uz nagib polja kako bi postigao povoljno polje vatre po neprijateljskom položaju. [6]: 82–83 Iz svoje je perspektive general McClellan mogao vidjeti borbe, a kasnije je napisao guverneru Wisconsina Edwardu Salomonu: „Molim vas da dodam svoje veliko divljenje ponašanju tri pukovnije Wisconsina u brigadi generala Gibbona. Vidio sam pod vatrom djeluju na način koji odražava najveću moguću zaslugu i čast na njima samima i njihovoj državi. Oni su jednaki najboljim trupama u bilo kojoj vojsci na svijetu. " [2] [6]: 85

Lee je te večeri evakuirao South Mountain, no McClellan ga je 16. rujna 1862. ponovno sustigao u Antietam Creeku, u blizini Sharpsburga, Maryland. [3]: 452 Te je noći Željezna brigada, zajedno s ostatkom I. korpusa, prešla Antietam Creek i zauzeo položaj krajnje desno od linije Union. [3]: 452

U zoru je bitka za Antietam započela kad je I. korpus napredovao pod topničkom vatrom. [6]: 87 Bragg je predvodio 6. Wisconsin na krajnjem desnom kraju napredovanja Unije, gdje su napadnuti iz šume na desnom boku. [3]: 453 Bragg je, unatoč tome što je pogođen u početnoj baraži, naredio ljudima da se preoblikuju i uzvrate vatru u šumu. [6]: 80 [napomena 9] Bragg se srušio i odnesen je straga. U podne se mogao vratiti oko podneva, ali još nije bio sposoban za povratak na dužnost. [7] [6]: 93

Nakon bitke, jedan od narednika greškom je napisao Braggovoj ženi obavijestivši je da je ubijen. [6]: 99 [bilješka 10] Priča se proširila Wisconsinom i rezultirala je njegovim osmrtnicom koja se pojavila u nekoliko radova. [8]

Prije Antietama, Bragg je od Wisconsina dobio molbe da se kandidira za Kongres kao ratni demokrat na listiću stranke National Union. Bragg je odgovorio: "Neću odbiti nominaciju na platformi, Vlada mora biti izdržana, ali moje usluge se ne mogu uzeti s terena. Ja zapovijedam pukovnijom i ne mogu otići u ovakvo vrijeme." [6]: 76 Ipak, nakon bitke, dobio je vijest da je nominiran od okružne konvencije stranke Nacionalne unije. [6]: 99 Na kraju je izgubio izbore protiv antiratnog demokrata Charlesa A. Eldredgea. [2] [9] [6]: 105–106 [bilješka 11]

Fredericksburg i Chancellorsville (zima 1862. - proljeće 1863.) Uredi

In the Winter of 1862–63, there were two more Union offensives attempted against Fredericksburg, Virginia. Bragg led the regiment through the Battle of Fredericksburg and the aborted Mud March, but they were not engaged in serious fighting in either campaign. [3] : 456 [6] : 108 The Iron Brigade spent most of the rest of the winter camped at Belle Plains, Virginia, where they were reorganized and resupplied. During this time, Bragg received his official promotion to colonel, effective March 10, 1863, [4] [6] : 129 and was one of several officers invited to meet with President Abraham Lincoln. [6] : 131–132

The campaigning resumed in April 1863 under General Joseph Hooker, now in overall command of the Army of the Potomac. [6] : 132 In the Battle of Chancellorsville, the Iron Brigade was charged with securing the creation of a pontoon bridge at Fitz Hughes Crossing on the Rappahannock, southeast of Fredericksburg. [6] : 135 After the bridge engineers came under attack from the far side of the river, Colonel Bragg was tasked with forcing a crossing and securing the far bank of the river. [3] : 457 [6] : 136 [note 12] Within an hour, Bragg had secured the beachhead and taken nearly 200 of Confederate prisoners. [3] : 457 Bragg and the 6th Wisconsin received special compliments from their division commander, General James S. Wadsworth, for the daring raid. [2] [3] : 457 After crossing, they were joined by VI Corps and the rest of I Corps, forming the left wing of Hooker's attack. However, after remaining in position for two days under enemy shelling, on May 2, I Corps and the Iron Brigade were recalled to cross back to the north side of the river and move west to reinforce Hooker at Chancellorsville. [3] : 458 Ultimately, Hooker was forced to withdraw and the Iron Brigade and its Division again acted as rearguard for the Union retreat. [3] : 458

Colonel Bragg became seriously ill after Chancellorsville, possibly due to the poor weather conditions during the battle, combined with a wound he received from being kicked by Major John Hauser's horse. [6] : 146 [note 13] He remained in his tent attempting to recuperate, but, in early June, was sent to a hospital in Washington, D.C. [6] : 149 [note 14] While sick, Bragg missed the entire Gettysburg campaign, leaving the regiment under the command of Lt. Colonel Rufus Dawes, who performed heroic duty leading the regiment on the first day of the Battle of Gettysburg. [3] : 461 [note 15] Colonel Bragg briefly attempted to return to the regiment in the days after the Battle of Gettysburg but was still too ill to participate, and had to return again to medical care. [7] [6] : 189 [note 16]

Bristoe, Mine Run, and Reorganization (Fall 1863 – Spring 1864) Edit

Colonel Bragg returned to the 6th Wisconsin about August 28, 1863, finding them camped near Rappahannock Station. [6] : 201 [note 17] In the Bristoe campaign and the Battle of Mine Run, the Iron Brigade engaged in a series of rapid maneuvers, but did not engage in serious fighting. [3] : 464–465

In January 1864, the 6th Wisconsin officially achieved Veteran status and those who re-enlisted were given a furlough to return to Wisconsin. [6] : 201 [note 18] Bragg and the re-enlisted veterans traveled by train and were celebrated at a ceremony in Milwaukee, hosted by former Governor Edward Salomon, Milwaukee Mayor Edward O'Neill, and Bragg's former 2nd Wisconsin Regiment counterpart, General Lucius Fairdhild—who had just been elected Wisconsin's Secretary of State. [6] : 237 [10]

Overland Campaign (Summer 1864) Edit

In March 1864, General Ulysses S. Grant was appointed the commander of the Union Army in the Virginia theatre, replacing General George Meade, who had been in command since the Gettysburg Campaign. That same month, the Iron Brigade veterans returned to camp and engaged in drilling and reorganization under the new commander. For the next phase of the war, they would be the 1st Brigade, 4th Division, in Gouverneur K. Warren's V Corps. [3] : 465

On May 3, 1864, they returned to campaign, marching from their camp at Culpeper Court House. They arrived at the Wilderness Tavern south of the Rapidan River at dusk on May 4. [3] : 465 [6] : 259 On the morning of May 5, the Iron Brigade, along with their division, marched southwest and encountered the enemy in the woods at the start of what became the Battle of the Wilderness. [3] : 465 The fighting in the woods was confusing and, after engaging with the enemy, Colonel Bragg ran out on his own to attempt to identify the location of other nearby Union regiments, nearly falling into the hands of the enemy. [6] : 260–261 [note 19] [note 20]

That afternoon, their division received new orders to detach and proceed to the south to reinforce Winfield Scott Hancock's II Corps and John Sedgwick's VI Corps. [6] : 261 Near dawn on May 6, the fighting resumed as Sedgwick launched his attack. The Iron Brigade attacked the left flank of the Confederate Third Corps under A. P. Hill. [6] : 261 Though initially successful, the offensive stalled when elements of the Confederate First Corps under James Longstreet arrived and counterattacked. [6] : 262 The Union forces fell back under the Confederate counterattack but stabilized along the Brock Road, between Wilderness Tavern and Todds Tavern, Virginia. [3] : 466

After the fighting on May 6, Colonel Bragg was placed in command of the all-Pennsylvanian 3rd Brigade of their Division—sometimes referred to as the "Pennsylvania Bucktail Brigade"—by General Lysander Cutler. [3] : 466 [6] : 263 Cutler, who had been Bragg's original commanding officer in the 6th Wisconsin, had become Division commander with the death of General James S. Wadsworth in the fighting earlier that day. [3] : 466 Bragg replaced Colonel Roy Stone, who was reportedly drunk during the battle on both May 5 and May 6. On both days, his brigade had performed poorly, marching and firing in a disorganized manner, scattering in the face of Confederate skirmishers, and accidentally shooting at members of their own unit. [11] Stone was finally relieved of command after his horse fell on top of him as his lines broke again during the May 6 attack. [11] Colonel Bragg led the brigade for most of the remainder of the Overland Campaign. His leadership stabilized the brigade and they performed admirably at the battles of Spotsylvania Court House, North Anna, Totopotomoy Creek, and Cold Harbor, where he turned over command of the brigade to Gettysburg hero Joshua Chamberlain. [1] [6] : 263 [12] : 611 [note 21]

On the night of May 7, V Corps was ordered to proceed southeast toward Spotsylvania Court House, as Grant attempted to maneuver his army in between Lee and the Confederate capitol, Richmond. Arriving at Laurel Hill, northwest of Spotsylvania Court House, on the morning of May 8, they found a Confederate force had already reached the site and occupied strong defensive positions. [6] : 264 Bragg's brigade participated in four Union assaults against the Confederate fortifications between May 8 and May 12. [3] : 467 On the afternoon of May 12, they marched to their left and engaged in fighting at the "Bloody Angle". [6] : 268

Colonel Bragg was, once again, incorrectly reported killed in action after the fighting at Spotsylvania Court House. A letter from Colonel Thomas Allen announced his death—along with the deaths of Lt. Colonel Rufus Dawes and Captain John Azor Kellogg—and was widely reprinted in several Wisconsin newspapers. [13] [14] [15] [6] : 272 [note 22] All three officers were actually alive and relatively unharmed—although Kellogg had been taken prisoner. [6] : 285 [note 23]

After days of skirmishing and shelling at the fortifications around Spotsylvania Court House, V Corps was again ordered to move to the south, continuing the maneuver toward Richmond. After stopping at Guinea's Station and the Po River, they crossed the North Anna River near dusk on May 23, 1864. [6] : 274 That evening, before they were able to fully establish their battle lines, they were attacked by Confederates of A. P. Hill's Third Corps in the first action of the Battle of North Anna. After initially giving ground, the division rallied and drove the Confederates from the field. [3] : 468 After more days of entrenched stalemate, on the evening of May 26, Grant again ordered the Union divisions to stealthily evacuate their lines and proceed south around the Confederate right flank. [3] : 468 They crossed the Pamunkey River on May 28 and set defensive lines behind the cavalry Battle of Haw's Shop. They moved again on May 29 and May 30, encountering divisions of the Confederate 1st Corps at the Battle of Totopotomoy Creek and repelled them. [6] : 279

Over the next two weeks, they were engaged in the trench warfare of the Battle of Cold Harbor. [3] : 469 On June 6, in the midst of this battle, Bragg's Pennsylvanian brigade was detached from the division and Bragg was placed in command of the Iron Brigade. [6] : 283 [16] : 650 [note 24] Colonel Bragg's account of the actions of the Pennsylvanian brigade during the Overland campaign can be found in the Official War Records, Series 1, Volume 36, Part 1, Item 141. [12] : 636–639

Siege of Petersburg (Summer 1864 – Spring 1865) Edit

On June 12, they made another sudden evacuation of their position and crossed the James River, engaging the Siege of Petersburg, and entrenching southeast of the city. [3] : 473 On June 18, they participated in the futile charge against the Petersburg defenses in the Second Battle of Petersburg. In the battle, the Iron Brigade was part of a general assault on the Confederate line, charging half a mile over open field toward the enemy. [6] : 291 They were ordered to halt under enemy fire and waited there for Union regiments on their left, which had become panicked and disorganized. [3] : 473 Ultimately, after nearly two hours under fire, they retreated to their trenches. [3] : 474 In his report of the battle, their division commander, General Lysander Cutler, said, "In this affair I lost in killed and wounded about one third of the men I had with me, and among them many valuable officers." He continued to say that they never reached within seventy five yards of the enemy lines. [6] : 291

For the next several weeks, they remained in position besieging Petersburg. They remained on the trench line—where they could be subject to sniper fire and artillery—until June 26, when they were relieved temporarily. [6] : 298 During this time, Colonel Bragg received word of his official promotion to brigadier general, effective June 25, 1864. [4] [6] : 298 [16] : 709–710 [note 25] They rotated back to the trenches a few weeks later.

They remained engaged in the siege for the rest of the year and into early 1865. On July 30, a Union sapper mine detonated explosives underneath the Confederate trench, resulting in a day of fighting in what's called the Battle of the Crater. [6] : 302 On August 18, 1864, they were part of the successful Union raid, known as the Battle of Globe Tavern, to cut the Weldon Railroad and reduce the supply lines for the Petersburg defenders. [3] : 475 In October, there was another attempt, known as the Battle of Boydton Plank Road, to sever another Confederate supply line, but the attack was withdrawn. [3] : 476

General Bragg's final battle of the war was the Battle of Hatcher's Run, occurring February 6, 1865, near the site of the Battle of Boydton Plank Road. [3] : 476 The Iron Brigade took heavy casualties, and, following the battle, had to be significantly reorganized. General Bragg was summoned to Washington with four regiments and then sent to Baltimore to supervise transportation of conscripts. He remained in Baltimore until the end of the war. [2] He mustered out October 9, 1865. [4]

Following the war, Bragg returned to his legal practice in Fond du Lac. [4]

Johnson appointments controversy Edit

In 1866, General Bragg was appointed postmaster of Fond du Lac by President Andrew Johnson. This occurred as tensions were beginning to rise between President Johnson and the Radical Republican Congress. In February 1867, the Senate voted to rescind Bragg's appointment, along with several other Johnson appointments. [17] Johnson subsequently nominated Bragg to be Assessor of Internal Revenue for the 4th district of Wisconsin, which the United States Senate also defeated. [18] [19]

Democratic minority Edit

Later in 1867, General Bragg won election to the Wisconsin State Senate from the 20th senatorial district, serving in the 21st and 22nd Wisconsin Legislatures (1868 & 1869). [20] He did not run for re-election in 1869, but remained extremely active in Democratic politics, campaigning for the Democratic tickets and running for office several times. He was mostly unsuccessful for the next several years, as Republican politics remained dominant in Wisconsin.

In 1868, Bragg was a member of the executive committee for the National Convention of "Conservative Soldiers and Sailors"—part of the 1868 Democratic National Convention in New York City. The Soldiers and Sailors convention favored the nomination of Major General Winfield Scott Hancock for president, but were ultimately unsuccessful, as the convention nominated former New York Governor Horatio Seymour. [21] Bragg campaigned vigorously for the Democratic ticket in the fall, though papers commented that he didn't seem to share the candidate's views on African American suffrage. [22] He was also a delegate to the 1872 Democratic National Convention, which nominated Horace Greeley.

He was the Democratic nominee for Attorney General of Wisconsin in 1871, but was defeated along with the entire Democratic ticket. [23]

In the hotly contested 1875 United States senate election in the Wisconsin Legislature, Bragg was the choice of the Democratic caucus, believed to be a potential compromise candidate for the fourteen Republicans who had pledged to prevent the re-election of Matthew H. Carpenter. [24] However, after no candidate was able to obtain a majority through several ballots, a new compromise candidate emerged in Angus Cameron. Cameron was ultimately elected on the 12th ballot. [25] [26]

In more local affairs, Bragg engaged in a years-long feud with Congressman Charles A. Eldredge, who had defeated him running on an anti-war platform in the 1862 congressional election. [27] In 1874, Bragg was successful in defeating Eldredge in local primaries and taking a slate of delegates to the district convention, preventing Eldredge's renomination. But the nomination ultimately went to Samuel D. Burchard. [28] [29] Bragg came back two years later, however, and this time defeated Burchard in his attempt for renomination. [30]

Congress Edit

In November 1876, Bragg was elected to represent Wisconsin's 5th congressional district in the 45th United States Congress. [31] Bragg would go on to win re-election in 1878 and 1880, but, after redistricting in 1881, he was unable to win renomination in 1882. [32]

During these six years in Congress, Bragg was chairman of the Committee on Expenditures in the Department of Justice from 1877 to 1879 and of the Committee on War Claims from 1879 to 1881. He was, again, a delegate to the Democratic National Convention in 1880, which nominated General Winfield Scott Hancock.

After the 1880 census, redistricting was carried out and Bragg's county, Fond du Lac, was moved from the 5th congressional district to the 2nd district. Bragg now found himself in an intense contest for renomination against Arthur Delaney of Dodge County. In the days before he would attend the convention in September, however, Bragg was arrested and accused of a financial fraud deriving from a transaction with the Tremont House institution in Chicago. Though the charges were eventually dropped, the controversy likely harmed his chances of renomination. [33] At the convention, the vote deadlocked for hundreds of ballots with delegates for the two candidates unwilling to compromise. The matter was resolved when Bragg had to leave the convention to attend his daughter's wedding—a former ally, Daniel H. Sumner, convinced a group of delegates to pick him as a compromise candidate on the 1,601st ballot. Bragg initially considered an independent bid, but decided against it, stating that he was retiring from politics. [34] [35]

Nevertheless, General Bragg remained involved in state politics. In 1884, he was, again, a delegate to the Democratic National Convention. At that convention, he seconded the nomination of Grover Cleveland for the presidency saying "We love him for the enemies he made."—referring to Cleveland's conflicts with the corrupt Tammany Hall organization. The phrase became a slogan for the Cleveland campaign and Cleveland was elected the 22nd President of the United States that November.

That same fall, Bragg again pursued the Democratic nomination for Congress at the district convention, held at Beaver Dam, Wisconsin, in September. Daniel Sumner was seeking renomination, Arthur Delaney was again a chief rival, with Judge Hiram W. Sawyer of Washington County also in the race. The balloting again deadlocked with no candidate able to secure the majority. Finally, before the 150th ballot, Sawyer and Sumner withdrew from the contest, allowing Bragg to win the nomination in a 15–13 vote over Delaney. [36]

Bragg won the November general election with 55% over Republican Samuel S. Barney. [37] During the 49th United States Congress (1885–1887) Bragg was chairman of the Committee on Military Affairs.

In 1886, Bragg again faced a contested convention when seeking renomination. Delaney was his chief rival, again, and, once again, a bitter and lengthy convention fight ensued. On the 216th ballot, Delaney was finally able to secure the nomination from Bragg. [38] Delaney, however, went on to defeat in the general election. [39]

Split with Democrats Edit

Bragg returned to his law practice in Fond du Lac, Wisconsin, but returned to public office in January 1888, when he was appointed United States Minister (Ambassador) to Mexico by President Grover Cleveland. He served in the role until his successor was appointed and confirmed, in May 1889, under the administration of President Benjamin Harrison. [2] As a diplomat, Bragg was said to have formed a good rapport with Mexican President Porfirio Díaz, and was fond of the country and his time there. In 1893, when President Cleveland returned to office, Bragg solicited a re-appointment to the post. [40] Despite strong backing from the Wisconsin congressional delegation in 1893—and when the seat became open again in 1895—Cleveland did not reappoint General Bragg, in what was taken as a snub. [41]

After returning from Mexico in 1889, Bragg again returned to his legal career and state politics. In 1890 he was organizing for another attempt at election to the United States Senate, but ultimately made a deal with William Freeman Vilas, whereby Bragg would support Vilas in 1891 and would, in turn, have the support of Vilas in the 1893 senate election, assuming Democrats still held a majority in the Wisconsin Legislature at that time. [42] This consideration also likely influenced his decision to become involved in the famous "gerrymandering" cases of 1892, in which he advocated against a challenge to the Democrats' 1891 redistricting law (1891 Wis. Act 482) before the Wisconsin Supreme Court. [43] The Court, however, in a bipartisan opinion, sided with the challengers and the district map was struck down as an unconstitutional partisan gerrymander. [44]

Despite the court loss, Democrats won massive majorities in the Wisconsin Legislature in the 1892 elections, but Bragg did not ultimately benefit from it in the senatorial election. The Democratic caucus deadlocked in a three-way race between Bragg, John H. Knight of Ashland, and John L. Mitchell of Milwaukee. On the 31st ballot, the Knight delegation broke in favor of Mitchell. [45] Bragg's supporters saw it as a betrayal by Vilas, who was seen as a supporter of Mitchell. [46] Subsequently, at the 1894 Democratic state convention, Bragg was favored for the nomination for Governor, but refused nomination. [47]

In 1896, Bragg was once again one of the leaders of the Wisconsin delegation to that year's Democratic National Convention in Chicago. Bragg, however, was deeply bothered by the nomination of William Jennings Bryan and the ascendance of the "populist fanatics." [48] Bragg threatened to vote for the Republican, William McKinley. He became one of the leaders of a Democratic schism, called the National Democratic Party, and was a candidate for president at its convention in Indianapolis in September. [49] McKinley went on to win the election, carrying Wisconsin by roughly the exact margin Bragg had predicted—100,000 votes. [48]

The schism would prove permanent for Bragg, who supported McKinley for re-election in 1900, as well as state Republicans, such as gubernatorial candidates Edward Scofield in 1898 and Robert M. La Follette in 1900. In May 1902, President Theodore Roosevelt appointed him consul general in Havana, Cuba, which had recently ratified their U.S.-backed constitution. But he was unhappy with the assignment, so, in September 1902, he was reassigned to Hong Kong, then a British crown colony, serving until 1906. [1]

Bragg married Cornelia Colman on January 2, 1854. Cornelia was a granddaughter of Colonel Nathaniel Rochester, who was the namesake and one of the founders of Rochester, New York. They had three sons and three daughters, though two of their sons died in childhood. [50] : 204 Their youngest daughter, Bertha, married George Percival Scriven, who would go on to become the first chairman of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, the forerunner of NASA.

Bragg was a cousin of Frederick William Benteen, a senior captain (brevet brigadier-general) of the U.S. 7th Cavalry under George Armstrong Custer. Benteen was a major figure in the ill-fated Battle of the Little Bighorn and was singled out by Major Marcus Reno for his leadership during the two days of fighting endured by the survivors. Benteen mentioned his relationship to Bragg in a letter to Theodore Goldin dated February 10, 1896 (Benteen-Goldin Letters, Carroll, 1974).

He was also a cousin of Confederate Army General Braxton Bragg. [51] Though the two Braggs were both major participants in the prosecution of the Civil War, they never met in battle.

General Bragg suffered a paralytic stroke on June 19, 1912, and died the next day at his home in Fond du Lac, Wisconsin. [1] [7] He was interred at Fond du Lac's Rienzi Cemetery.


Chickamauga

At the end of 1862, Bragg's army was tested again when the Union's Army of the Cumberland moved into central Tennessee in hopes of seizing control of the area. Bragg reacted by setting up a strong defensive position at Stones River, near the town of Murfreesboro. The Union force, commanded by General William Rosecrans (1819–1898), attacked Bragg's position on New Year's Eve, 1862. The battle raged for three days, as both armies desperately fought for possession of the battlefield. The clash finally ended on January 2, 1863, after Bragg learned that Union reinforcements were on the way to help Rosecrans. He reluctantly retreated from the region, giving up on his hopes of establishing Confederate control over the area.

The Battle of Stones River (also known as the Battle of Murfreesboro) badly damaged both armies. Rosecrans lost more than thirteen thousand of his forty-seven thousand troops, while Bragg's thirty-eight thousand–man force suffered more than ten thousand casualties. These heavy losses forced both commanders to remain inactive for the next several months. By June 1863, however, Rosecrans's army had recovered. Armed with reinforcements that swelled the size of his Army of the Cumberland to about sixty thousand troops, Rosecrans launched a skillful military campaign that pushed Bragg's army all the way across Tennessee. By early September, Bragg had abandoned the city of Chattanooga, even though it was a major Confederate railroad center and supply depot.

Encouraged by Bragg's evacuation of Chattanooga, Rosecrans tried to acquire even more rebel territory. But when Bragg received reinforcements in northern Georgia, he turned to confront his pursuer. In mid-September he counterattacked near a small stream known as Chickamauga Creek. Over the course of two days (September 19 and 20) the brutal Battle of Chickamauga raged, until Bragg's Army of Tennessee finally gained the advantage and chased Rosecrans' troops from the field. Rosecrans retreated all the way back to Chattanooga. Bragg gave chase, but his progress was slowed by continued bickering with his junior (lower-ranked) officers over military strategy and other issues.


Braxton Bragg

One of the most controversial figures of the Confederate army, Braxton Bragg, was born on March 22, 1817, in Warrenton, North Carolina. Bragg’s father, a successful carpenter, determined to send his son to the United States Military Academy. Thanks to the political connections of his older brother, Bragg received his appointment at age 16 and graduated fifth in the class of 1837, ahead of Jubal Early, John Sedgwick, John C. Pemberton, Joe Hooker, and others.

Bragg served in the Second Seminole War and commanded Fort Marion in Florida, displaying a penchant for strict discipline and the first hints of an argumentative personality. In spite of this reputation, Bragg won promotions for bravery during the Mexican War, where the timely arrival of his artillery at the Battle of Buena Vista, helped the Americans repel the numerically superior Mexican force. This action earned him nationwide fame and the undying gratitude of the commander of a Mississippi regiment, Jefferson Davis. Bragg resigned from the Army in 1856 when he and his wife purchased a sugar plantation in Louisiana.

Though opposed to secession, Bragg organized Louisiana troops during the secession crisis and seized the Federal arsenal at Baton Rouge on January 11, 1861. After Louisiana’s secession, Bragg was appointed major general commanding the state’s forces before joining the Confederate army in March. In September, Bragg assumed command of the Department of West Florida and supervised the instruction of troops there. In February 1862, Bragg requested that he and his 10,000 troops be transferred to Albert Sidney Johnston’s command in Corinth, Mississippi, where he believed they would be of more use. By that Spring Bragg commanded a corps in Johnston’s army and led it at the Battle of Shiloh, where received a promotion to full general for his leadership.

Following the loss of Corinth, Mississippi, Bragg replaced Beauregard as commander of the Confederate Army of Mississippi, later renamed the Army of Tennessee. Under Bragg the army scored partial victories—at places like Perryville, Stones River, and Chickamauga—but never delivered the finishing blow. This infuriated his subordinates, who were already frustrated with Bragg’s poor temper and combative personality. Many advocated for Bragg’s removal, but Davis’ support for his old friend was unwavering. Only after Bragg’s defeat at Chattanooga in November 1863, did Davis accept Bragg’s resignation as army commander. Bragg, however, remained active in the Confederate army for the duration of the war, serving as military advisor to President Davis and as a corps commander under Joseph E. Johnston at the Battle of Bentonville in 1865. Bragg attended the last final cabinet meeting of the Confederate government as was captured on May 9 in Georgia.


General Braxton Bragg (March 22, 1817 &ndash September 27, 1876)

Fort Bragg, California was named after General Braxton Bragg a West Point graduate who rose to be a Lieutenant Colonel in the US Army and later a Commanding General of the Western Division of the Confederate States Army in the American Civil War. General Bragg was a very controversial figure and, believe it or not, he ended up being an inspector of railroads.

His pre-Civil War career was highly distinguished. After seeing action against the Seminoles, he went on to win three brevets in the Mexican War, in which his battery of "flying artillery" revolutionized, in many respects, the battlefield use of that arm. In 1856, as a lieutenant colonel by brevet-in the 3rd Artillery, he resigned from the Army, and bought a Louisiana sugar plantation.

During the Civil War, he held many posts in the Confederate Army. Initially commanding in Louisiana, he was later in charge of the operations against Fort Pickens in Pensacola Harbor. Ordered to northern Mississippi in early 1862, he briefly commanded the forces gathering there for the attack on Grant at Shiloh. During the battle itself he directed a corps and was later rewarded with promotion to full general. As such he relieved Beauregard when he went on sick leave and was then given permanent command in the West.

Of the eight men who reached the rank of full general in the Confederate army Braxton Bragg was the most controversial. The North Carolinian West Pointer (1837) had earned a prewar reputation for strict discipline as well as a literal adherence to regulations. At one time, the story goes, he actually had a written dispute with himself while serving in the dual capacity of company commander and post quartermaster.

Having served during the Corinth siege, he led the army into Kentucky and commanded at Perryville, where he employed only a portion of his force. On the last day of 1862 he launched a vicious attack on the Union left at Murfreesboro but failed to carry through his success on the following days. Withdrawing from the area, he was driven into Georgia during Rosecrans' Tullahoma Campaign and subsequent operations.

In September he won the one major Confederate victory in the West, at Chickamauga, but failed to follow up his success. Instead he laid siege to the Union army in Chattanooga and merely waited for Grant to break through his lines.

Throughout these campaigns, Bragg fought almost as bitterly against some of his uncooperative subordinates as he did against the enemy, and they made multiple attempts to have him replaced as army commander. The defeat at Chattanooga was the last straw and Bragg was recalled in early 1864 to Richmond, where he became the military adviser to Confederate President Jefferson Davis. His disputes with his subordinates especially Leonidas Polk, James Longstreet, and William J. Hardee severely injured the effectiveness of the Army of Tennessee. Several top officers left the army for other fields, and Longstreet and Simon B. Buckner were dispatched into East Tennessee. With the army thus weakened, Bragg was routed at Chattanooga and was shortly removed from command. Almost immediately he was appointed as an advisor to Jefferson Davis, his staunch supporter, and maintained an office in Richmond.

Bragg and his wife Elise lost their home in late 1862 when the plantation in Thibodaux was confiscated by the Federal Army. It briefly served as a shelter, the Bragg Home Colony, for freed slaves under the control of the Freedmen&rsquos Bureau. The couple moved in with his brother, a plantation owner but they found the life of seclusion there to be intolerable. In 1867 Bragg became the superintendent of the New Orleans waterworks, but he was soon replaced by an African-American as the Reconstructionists came to power.

In late 1869 Jefferson Davis offered him a job as an agent for the Carolina Life Insurance Company. He worked there for four months before becoming dissatisfied with the profession and its low pay. He considered but rejected a position in the Egyptian Army. In August 1871 he was employed by the city of Mobile, Alabama, to improve the river, harbor, and bay, leaving after quarreling with a "combination of capitalists." Moving to Texas, he was appointed the chief engineer of the Gulf, Colorado, and Santa Fe Railroad in July 1874, but within a year disagreements with the board of directors over his compensation caused him to resign. He remained in Texas as inspector of railroads.

At the age of 59, Bragg was walking down a street with a friend in Galveston, Texas, when he suddenly fell over unconscious. Dragged into a drugstore, he was dead within 10 to 15 minutes. A physician familiar with his history believe that he "died by the brain" (or of "paralysis of the brain"), suffering from the degeneration of cerebral blood vessels. He is buried in Magnolia Cemetery, Mobile, Alabama.

Bragg has had a very controversial legacy. James McPherson's reference to "the bumblers like Bragg and Pemberton and Hood who lost the West" sums up the judgment of many modern historians. Bragg's shortcomings as an army commander included his unimaginative tactics, mostly his reliance on frontal assault and his lack of post-battle follow up that turned tactical victories or draws into strategic disappointments. His sour disposition, penchant to blame others for defeat, and poor interpersonal skills undoubtedly caused him to be criticized more directly than many of his unsuccessful contemporaries.

Peter Cozzens wrote about his relationship with subordinates &hellip. &ldquoEven Bragg's staunchest supporters admonished him for his quick temper, general irritability, and tendency to wound innocent men with barbs thrown during his frequent fits of anger. His reluctance to praise or flatter was exceeded, we are told, only by the tenacity with which, once formed, he clung to an adverse impression of a subordinate. For such officers&mdashand they were many in the Army of the Mississippi&mdashBragg's removal or their transfer were the only alternatives to an unbearable existence.&rdquo

So Fort Bragger&rsquos now you know about the man for whom your town is named.

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General Bragg - History

Grave of Gen. Braxton Bragg
Confederate flags fly at the grave of General
Braxton Bragg in observance of Confederate
Memorial Day. He is buried in Mobile, Alabama.

Confederate General Braxton Bragg is
buried with his wife at Magnolia Cemetery in
Mobile, Alabama . An ornamental enclosure
and monument mark his grave in the
Confederate rest section of the cemetery.

One of the more enigmatic and controversial
figures of the War Between the States (or
Civil War), Braxton Bragg was born in North
Carolina on March 22, 1817. His family was
one of humble circumstances and not part of
the wealthy elite that actually included only a
small percentage of Southerners during the
antebellum era.

Bragg showed promise as a young student
and received an appointment to the U.S.
Military Academy at West Point. He graduated
5th in the Class of 1837, finishing ahead of
future generals Joseph Hooker, Jubal Early,
Israel Vogdes, John C. Pemberton and John
Sedgwick.

Commissioned a lieutenant in the U.S. Army,
Bragg served in Florida during the Second
Seminole War. In 1840 he became the
commander of Fort Marion at St. Augustine,
the historic Spanish citadel known today as
the Castillo de San Marcos .

A man of strong moral character, Bragg did
not approve of drunkenness or gambling.
This did not go over well with some of his
men and they plotted to kill him by setting off
an artillery shell beneath his bunk.

The shell exploded as planned and tore
Bragg's bunk to pieces. Miraculously, he
survived the blast without so much as a
scratch.

In 1845, Bragg's company from the 3rd U.S.
Artillery was ordered to Texas to join the
command of General Zachary Taylor. The
Mexican-American War erupted one year later
and the young officer served with distinction
in the Battles of Fort Brown, Monterey and
Buena Vista.

It was at Buena Vista that Bragg, already
promoted to brevet major for heroism at
Montery, helped save the American Army. The
battle was fought on February 23, 1847.

The critical moment came when General
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna launched an
attack on one wing of Taylor's army. Bragg
and his artillery battery were ordered up and
directed to maintain their position "at all
costs."

The gunners were firing furiously as Mexican
troops under General Francisco Perez came
forward. Determined to hold, General Taylor
rode up to Bragg and yelled, "Double-shot
your guns and give 'em hell, Bragg!"

Bragg and his men then fired double loads of
canister into the Mexican ranks. The assault
collapsed and the American army prevailed.

Taylor's orders - often misquoted as "A little
more grape, Captain Bragg" - struck a chord
with patriotic citizens back in the United
Države. "Double-shot your guns and give 'em
hell" became the campaign slogan that put
Zachary Taylor in the White House. Braxton
Bragg became a national hero.

Among the troops that Bragg's guns saved at
Buena Vista was the Mississippi regiment of
Colonel Jefferson Davis. From the bloody
carnage at Buena Vista grew a friendship
between the two men that lasted for the rest
of their lives.

Colonel Bragg left the U.S. Army in 1856 to
purchase a sugar plantation in Louisiana.
Although he opposed secession, he believed
that his first loyalty was to his state.

Anticipating the coming war, Louisiana
organized a 5,000 man state army. Braxton
Bragg was appointed major general and
given command. On March 7, 1861, he was
appointed a brigadier general in the regular
Confederate army by his old friend and now
President, Jefferson Davis.

General Bragg was sent to Florida where he
defended Pensacola with impressive energy.
He molded his undisciplined force into one
of the Confederacy's best trained armies.

When Forts Henry and Donelson fell in
Tennessee and opened the South to major
Union invasion, General Bragg and his men
were ordered to report to General Albert
Sidney Johnson in Corinth, Mississippi .

The Confederates attacked the Union army of
General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of
Shiloh on April 6, 1862. Bragg's Corps fought
fiercely against desperate Federals at the
"Hornet's Nest."

The Union lines were driven back into a final
position and the Confederates were closing
in when General P.G.T. Beauregard suddenly
called off a final attack. Johnston had been
killed in the fighting and Beauregard was
now in command.

Bragg objected to the decision and urged
one last attack, but Beauregard was stunned
by the magnitude of the bloodshed and the
final assault did not take place. Reinforced
during the night, the Union army attacked on
the next day and pushed the Confederate
army from the field. Had Bragg's advice for a
final assault been followed, the Union army
might well have been destroyed and the
reputation of Ulysses S. Grant with it.

Promoted to major general for his conduct at
Shiloh, Bragg became the commander of
Department Number 2 and the Army of
Tennessee a short time later. He stunned
Union commanders by pushing all the way to
the Ohio River. A promised flood of recruits
failed to appear in Kentucky so he ordered a
slow withdrawal from the state, fighting the
Battle of Perryville along the way.

The Kentucky Campaign ended with Bragg's
army occupying Murphreesboro, Tennessee,
far to the north of its starting point. Tamo je
men could obtain supplies and threaten
Nashville.

General William Rosecrans finally brought
the Union army out of Nashville at Christmas.
The result was the mid-winter Battle of
Stones River in which the two armies fought
to a bloody stalemate. Unable to drive back
Rosecrans and fearful that the river might
rise and divide his army, Bragg withdrew to
Tullahoma, Tennessee.

Rosecrans avoided another pitched battle
and moved his army around Bragg through
North Alabama and into Georgia. The
Confederates fell back through Chattanooga.

Reinforced by James Longstreet's Corps
from the Army of Northern Virginia, Bragg
turned on the Federals and launched the
Battle of Chickamauga on September 19,
1863. On the next day he achieved the signal
victory of his career when an attack by
Longstreet's Corps hit a gap in the Union
lines and shattered Rosecrans army.

Like Beauregard at Shiloh, however, Bragg
was now immobilized by the magnitude of
the slaughter. Chickamauga was second
only to Gettysburg in terms of human cost,
with the armies reported combined losses of
34,624 men. Left uncertain by the blood
letting, he failed to aggressively pursue the
defeated Federals.

Tensions were already simmering between
Braxton Bragg and his subordinate generals,
but they exploded after Chickamauga. Neki
of them requested his removal, but his old
friend Jefferson Davis kept him in command.

Bragg is remembered today as a grumpy
and disagreeable man, but it is seldom
noted that he suffered from several severe
illnesses. These included chronic migraines,
dyspepsia, nerve pain and rheumatism. On
lived in constant and often severe pain.

In November 1863, the Army of Tennessee
was defeated in battle at Lookout Mountain
and Missionary Ridge. Bragg offered his
resignation and was replaced by General
Joseph E. Johnston.

Unlike many other commanding officers in
such circumstances, however, Braxton Bragg
continued to do what he could for the cause
of the South. He traveled to Richmond where
he served as chief of staff to President Davis.
In this position he improved the organization
of the South's supply system and improved
the operation of the conscription (or draft).

It was Braxton Bragg who urged Jefferson
Davis to appoint P.G.T. Beauregard to the
command of the defenses of Richmond and
Petersburg. The decision prevented the fall of
Richmond when Beauregard was able to
hold off a much larger attacking Union force
at Petersburg until Robert E. Lee could arrive
with the Army of Northern Virginia.

As the war near its end, he swallowed his
pride and served in North Carolina as a
subordinate to his one-time replacement,
Joseph E. Johnston. He achieved one final
victory at the Second Battle of Kinston on
March 7-10, 1865 before taking part in the
last defeat of the Army of Tennessee at the
Battle of Bentonville on March 19-21.

On May 1, 1865, he joined the party of fleeing
Confederate President Jefferson Davis at
Abbeville, South Carolina. He attended the
final meeting of the Confederate Cabinet at
Washington, Georgia, where he bluntly told
Davis that the cause was lost.

General Braxton Bragg's military career came
to an end at Monticello, Georgia, on May 9,
1865, when he was captured and paroled by
the Union army.

The fall of the Confederacy was devastating
to Bragg and his wife Elise. Their home in
Louisiana had been seized by the U.S.
Government and they wound up living with
the general's brother in Lowndesboro,
Alabama . They eventually moved on to New
Orleans and finally Texas as Bragg worked a
series of jobs.

He was walking down a street in Galveston,
Texas, when he suddenly fell to the ground
on September 27, 1876. Bystanders and
friends pulled him into a drugstore, but he
died a few minutes later.

Since he had family in Alabama, General
Bragg's body was returned there for burial.
He and Elise rest beneath a monument in
the Confederate Rest section of Mobile's
Magnolia Cemetery.

The cemetery is open daily and is located at
1202 Virginia Street, Mobile, Alabama. Tamo
is no fee to visit.


Gledaj video: Everything You Know About Braxton Bragg Is Wrong


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